This study explores the Jungian notions of ‘archetype’, ‘projection’ and ‘imago’, and suggests the distinction between ‘archetypal’ and ‘cognitive’ characterization on the level of intention, and its implications regarding dramatic creativity. Whereas archetypal characterization aims at matching archetypes in the spectators’ minds, cognitive characterization aims at saying something true on the nature of real people, in the spirit of naturalism. Archetypal characterization thus offers the opportunity for the spectators to confront suppressed contents of their psyches. This study also suggests a model for the transition from the archetypal mode of characterization to the cognitive one through a process of deconstruction, and applies this model to Nina's process of individuation from adolescence to maturity in Chekhov's The seagull.
Jung, a self-proclaimed empiricist, resisted all metaphysical claims. Nevertheless his depth psychology hypothesized an unconscious agent, which we can never know directly. As a means of healing he implores us to loosen our resistance to the unconscious, for when ego-consciousness develops and maintains a relationship to the unconscious, human beings make the Creator conscious of His creation. Although not explicit in his theories, both the ego and the unconscious are more than psychological concepts for Jung; they are ontically real. Looking at Jung through the lens of Classical Yoga this paper invites a reconsideration of the Jungian ontic reality.
When Jung received the manuscript of the Taoist-alchemical treatise entitled The Secret of the Golden Flower from Richard Wilhelm he realized what his drawings of mandalas meant and received confirmation of his theories about the Self. At the same time, Jung realized that he had encountered ‘the East’ within, as he was digging into the depths of his own psyche. Today, thanks to the publication of The Red Book (RB) and Memories, Dreams, Reflections (MDR), we can understand that through that process, Jung held dialogues with the dead. This is considered to mean that he had contact with the world of death to reach another culture—the East. Yama argues that the indeterminate state between the determinate culture and another is chaotic and uncertain, a space which may possibly lead to the world of death. Nowadays, amongst rapid globalization, many people from diverse backgrounds have opportunities to encounter different cultures for various reasons, sometimes out of interest and sometimes out of necessity. In some cases, but not all, individuals simply step across into the other culture without the experience of ‘descending into the depth,’ as Jung had. Yama explores Jung’s inner journey and his childhood memories from the view of what was taking place while he was moving symbolically from the West to the East. For further exploration of the life of someone who is destined to live between different cultures, Yama introduces a Japanese old folk tale and presents clinical material, as well as her personal experience as one who spent her adolescence outside of her native culture.
Jung's psychology is founded upon this problem: ‘Somewhere deep in the background I always knew that I was two persons’ (Jung & Jaffé, 1977, pp. 61–62). I intend to read the disquieting tension of this problematic as haunting everything he wrote. My thesis is that Jung's perspective is both enchanted and disenchanted and, moreover, that this antinomial tension makes him and his psychology peculiarly modern. Utilising recent scholarship on the modern occult, which has placed enchantment at the centre of modernity, this paper argues for a peculiarly modern disenchanted enchantment that Jung's psychology both exemplifies and explores.
In his 12th year Jung had a fantasy about God shitting upon Basel cathedral. With this initiatory image of unrelenting disenchantment, the boy Jung emerged not only into personal adulthood but also into the particular form of adulthood corresponding to post-enlightenment modernity, i.e. disenchantment. However, Jung attempted first to halt the inevitable progress of the fantasy and then to neurotically disown it by a petitio principii, thus effectively invalidating the full effect of the initiatory experience. This paper explores the way in which Jung's soul fixated at the point of disenchantment, so that this ‘disenchantment complex’ became the ground of his whole psychological project, instituting a split that was to become literalized in his two homes: ‘Küsnacht’ and ‘Bollingen’.
With reference to the current debate surrounding the humanities in the West, this paper draws on subsequent theoretical explorations of disenchantment to analyse what numerous observers describe as the ‘crisis’ of our universities. Engaging both Jungian thought and the Frankfurt School to understand the psychological dynamics of ‘disenchantment’ as experienced on campus, it investigates Adorno's notion of the ‘totally administered society’ and — more broadly — surveys some of the arguments proposed to explain this decline. Moving beyond, on one hand, the lamentation and hand-wringing nostalgia for a long-lost past and, on the other, what some have termed a ‘new managerialism’ that inhabits an acronym-ridden climate of control, it tries to discern, in what is undoubtedly a political and an economic problem, the contours of a psychological crisis, whose resolution cannot ignore the archetypal dimension of the collective soul.