The nature of the Spanish Renaissance was very different from that in other parts of Europe, particularly insofar as it affected philosophical, political, and legal thought. In Spain, it was Catholicism, the Counter-Reformation, and the discovery of the New World that influenced the development of philosophy and moral-political thinking. The first part of this essay provides an overview of some of the most prominent issues and philosophical movements that arose during this period, focusing on the works of Domingo Báñez, O.P. (1528–1604), Luis Molina, S.J. (1535–1600), and Francisco Suárez, S.J. (1548–1617). It then moves to a consideration of mysticism, particularly the mystical practice of Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582), and its ramifications for philosophy. The second part of the essay provides an overview of Francisco de Vitoria, O.P.’s (1485–1546) legal thought and just war theory.