This book studies the deviant form of Nonprofit Groups (NPGs), mainly volunteer-based associations, but occasionally paid-staff-based nonprofit agencies. A
Deviant Nonprofit Group (DNG) is defined as “a Nonprofit group that deviates significantly from certain moral norms of the society” (Smith, Stebbins, & Dover, 2006, p. 68). The aim is to develop and present an empirically grounded theory with eighty-three hypotheses about many of the key analytical features or operational and structural characteristics of DNGs. Such DNGs were usually voluntary associations with memberships and usually run by volunteers, not nonprofit agencies without memberships and usually run by paid staff (Smith, 2017a). The total theory may be termed a Grounded General Theory of DNG Operation-Structure. The book is based on an extensive review and qualitative content analysis of about 260 published research documents representing twenty-five common-language (vernacular) purposive-goal types of DNGs (vs. analytical-theoretical types, which do not exist in detail). Moral norms are the broad, emotionally charged, customary directives concerning what is right and wrong, by which members of a community or society implement their institutionalized solutions to problems significantly affecting their valued way of life (Stebbins, 1996, pp. 2–3). All the grounded hypotheses reported here were supported by empirical evidence for at least one (often two) of the two or three specific DNGs studied for all DNG types in source documents. Indeed,
all reported hypotheses were supported by most of the twenty-five DNG types studied, giving significant qualitative validity to the author’s Grounded General Theory of DNG Operation-Structure. Such support suggests these hypotheses are valid at least sometimes for most DNG types and deserve further investigation. Collectively, the hypotheses of the present theory can be seen as a new theoretical paradigm for studying NPGs that helps bring analytical order to a previously chaotic realm of nonprofit sector deviant (rule-breaking) phenomena.
Big Data, Data Science, maschinelles Lernen – Begriffe, die auf Daten und ihren Wert für vielfältige Anwendungen hinweisen. Wem nützen die Daten? Wer darf sie nutzen? Wie werden wissenschaftlicher Fortschritt, Erfolg im ökonomischen Wettbewerb und Schutz der Privatsphäre gleichzeitig erreicht? Der Sammelband gibt die Referate einer Fachtagung der Nordrhein-Westfälischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Künste wieder, mit Beiträgen aus der Informatik, Statistik, Medizin, den Ingenieursdisziplinen, Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Damit beteiligt sich die Akademie an der dringend nötigen Diskussion, wie den Herausforderungen durch die heutigen Möglichkeiten der Datensammlung und -nutzung zu begegnen ist.
This is the first comprehensive overview of third sector research in Australasia, prepared by leading researchers, Jenny Onyx in Australia and Garth Nowland-Foreman in Aotearoa New Zealand. It examines both the current state of knowledge of the sector and also the research infrastructure behind the sector. Part one documents the size and scope of the sector, as well as the development of the organisation ANZTSR and its journal. Part two examines relations with the state in each country, the rapid growth in funding services, but also effects of neo-liberal ideological and policy constraints. Part Three documents the current state of volunteering and philanthropy (giving) in both countries. Part Four examines the world of citizen action, building social capital within local communities, and also advocacy and political protest. The concluding Part Five examines some of the current developments in civil society, new emerging forms, and challenges for the future.