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Series:

Vassily A. Spiridonov

Abstract

Thalamita matzuzawai sp. n. is described from the subtidal zone of Shikoku, Japan. This species is most similar to Thalamita picta Stimpson, 1858 and T. simillima Crosnier, 2002. It also shows similarity to the group of Thalamita species with a supplementary tooth at the base of the first anterolateral tooth, thus representing an intermediate position between these two groups. Thalamita williami sp. n. is described from Brunei. It belongs to the T. crenata Rüppell, 1830 group and is most similar to T. starobogatovi Tien, 1969.

Series:

Masatsune Takeda and Hironori Komatsu

Abstract

Two new species of the crab genus Actumnus Dana, 1851 (family Pilumnidae) are reported from the Ryukyu Islands, southwest Japan. Actumnus tsurukaii sp. nov. is similar to A. squamosus (De Haan, 1835), A. setifer (De Haan, 1835) and A. forficigerus (Stimpson, 1858) in possessing a poorly defined dorsal surface of the carapace with a coat of short setae, but differs in having relatively larger, fewer and more widely spaced conical granules or tubercles on the outer surfaces of the palms of both chelipeds. Actumnus uformis sp. nov. is similar to A. dorsipes Stimpson, 1858 and A. granotuberosus Garth & Kim, 1983 in having a prominently areolated dorsal surface of the carapace with a soft thick tomentum, but can be distinguished by the stronger areolation and the distinctly U-shaped protogastric region.

Series:

Shane T. Ahyong and Keiji Baba

Abstract

Uroptychus michaeli sp. nov. is described from northwestern Australia and Taiwan. The new species closely resembles U. nigricapillis, to which northwestern Australian and some Taiwanese records had been previously referred. Uroptychus michaeli sp. nov. is readily distinguished from U. nigricapillis by the deeply excavate cervical groove on the carapace (versus shallow, weakly indicated), more elongate pereopods 2-4 in which the pereopod 2 merus is longer than the postorbital carapace length (versus shorter), and the proportionally longer pereopod 2 carpus, which is as long as or longer than half postorbital carapace length (versus less than half) and approximately twice the length of the dactylus (versus 1.2× or less).

Series:

Keiji Baba and Enrique Macpherson

Abstract

A new species of chirostylid squat lobster, Uroptychus tuerkayi sp. nov., is described based upon material collected by the French “Seamount 2” project (1993) from the Atlantis-Great Meteor Seamount Chain south of the Azores Islands, at a depth of 340-730 m. Uroptychus tuerkayi resembles U. maroccanus Türkay, 1976 from the Moroccan coast, but it can be readily distinguished by the eyes being distinctly longer instead of as long as broad (globular in U. maroccanus), the antennal article 5 with a small instead of prominent distomesial spine, the anterolateral spine of the carapace slightly smaller than or subequal to, instead of much smaller than the lateral orbital spine, the pterygostomian flap anteriorly acuminate and not strongly produced to a spine as in U. maroccanus, and in having pereopod 1 with obsolescent instead of distinct spines on the merus and carpus. This is the sixth species of Uroptychus from the eastern Atlantic. A key to the eastern Atlantic species of Uroptychus is provided.

Series:

P. Castro

Abstract

Examination of the western Pacific material of goneplacoid crabs (families Euryplacidae and Goneplacidae) in the Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt a. M. (Germany) particularly uncatalogued material examined by Tune Sakai, allowed the discovery of the holotype of Eucrate formosensis Sakai, 1974 (Euryplacidae), as well as the identification of some rarely collected species.

Anita Kaliszewicz and Olga Dobczyńska

Sessility or isolated habitat can significantly reduce the number of encounters with potential mating partners and thus favour evolution and maintenance of self-fertilisation. Mobility analysis of phylogenetically related species that differs in reproductive mode and self-fertilisation ability could support the widely accepted but not clearly validated theory of selfing being favoured by sessility. Here, we compare mobility in three species of Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydridae) that differ in reproductive strategy: a simultaneous hermaphrodite able to self-fertilise, a sequential hermaphrodite, and a gonochoric species. The results indicate that mobility expressed as distance traversed by individuals is significantly reduced in Hydra circumcincta, a species that is able to self-fertilise, compared to sequential hermaphroditic Hydra vulgaris and gonochoric Hydra oligactis. Differences in mobility were not correlated to individual body size. It is likely that habitat isolation and limited mobility is associated with the evolution of self-fertilisation in such animals like hydras.

Changting Wang, Genxu Wang, Yong Wang, Hongbiao Zi, Manuel Lerdau and Wei Liu

Climate change is likely to alter the relative abundances of plant functional groups and the interactions between plants and soil microbes that maintain alpine meadow ecosystems. However, little is known about how warming-induced alterations to aboveground biomass (AGB) affect soil nutrients and microbial communities. We investigated plant community characteristics in 2002–2009 and analyzed soil properties and the soil microbial community in 2007–2009 to study the effects of warming in Qinghai Province, China. Sampling involved the use of warmed open top chambers, the monitoring of plant community characteristics, the quantification of total and available amounts of soil nutrients, and the evaluation of microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Experimental warming initially significantly increased the number of plant functional groups and plant community AGB; however, plant community diversity and species richness decreased. Nevertheless, all these variables stabilized over time. Fungal and bacterial abundance, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and soil organic matter increased with warming, while microbial PLFAs decreased. These findings demonstrated that climate change drivers and their interactions may cause changes in soil nutrients and the abundance and content of soil microbial PLFAs. Elevated temperature has strong effects on aboveground grass biomass. Surface conditions and disturbance affect the soil microbial communities of deep soil layers.

Royi Zidon, Hagar Leschner, Uzi Motro and David Saltz

Reintroduction of herbivores may play a vital role in restoring ecosystem functions. Here we describe the role of the Persian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), reintroduced into Israel, as a vector of seed dispersal by endozoochory. Persian fallow deer have a wide diet both from grazing and browsing. From fecal samples, we found that more than 30 species of plants germinated from the deer pellets. Four of the more common species are considered as ruderal. Of the trees, carob (Ceratonia siliqua) seeds were the only intact seeds found in the fecal samples. We found that ingestion by the deer has a positive effect on expediting the germination of carob seeds – a factor of ecological importance in the reintroduction environment, as it contributes to plant genetic diversity by long-range seed dispersal and to community diversity.

Huan-Huan Xu, Xing-Lan Chen, Yuan-Hao Yang, Xi Zhou and Jia-Xin Yang

Paraquat and juglone generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are widely used to investigate defense mechanisms against ROS in model animals. We cloned cDNA encoding hsp70 from the rotifer Asplanchna brightwelli. The full-length cDNA was 2134 bp and had an open reading frame of 1929 bp encoding 642 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the Asphsp70 was a cytoplasmic protein and has the highest similarity 87% with Mus musculus, 86% identity with orthologs of Danio rerio, 84% with Apis mellifera and 81% with Xenopus laevis. Expression of Asphsp70 was analyzed under 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L paraquat and 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/L juglone. With paraquat, mRNA expression of Asphsp70 significantly increased immediately after exposure for 1 h (P < 0.05). Expression of Asphsp70 temporarily increased after exposure to 2.5 mg/L for 3 and 6 h, and after 10 mg/L for 3 h (P < 0.05). With exposure to 6.25 μg/L juglone, mRNA for Asphsp70 significantly increased at 1, 3 and 12 h; with 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/L, mRNA expression of Asphsp70 significantly increased immediately for 1 h (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the Asphsp70 gene was important in the response to oxidative stress.