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Educated with Distinction

Educational Decisions and Girls’ Schooling in Late Ottoman Syria

Christian Sassmannshausen

Abstract

Beginning in the 1850s, the Ottoman Empire’s educational landscape expanded and diversified. During this era of imperial reforms, discourses around education increasingly focused on the importance of female education. This article uses census material from Tripoli in today’s Lebanon to explore the experiences of students in the wake of these shifts. It examines literacy rates across different social and religious groups and the extent to which educational decisions parents made were biased by gender and class. The analysis reveals that the rate of Muslim boys’ literacy was high even before new schools opened starting in the 1850s. As for the post-reform developments, it shows that although around a quarter of propertied families decided to send their sons and daughters to school, a considerable proportion of Muslim and Christian families privileged sons alone. Still, reforms allowed a number of groups in the generations between 1860 and 1910 to achieve higher rates of literacy, including Muslim and Christian girls as well as the children of artisans.

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Emotional Rescue

The Usefulness of Danger in Hellenistic and Roman Epigraphy

Jason Moralee

Abstract

Individuals, city-states, and small-scale communities of worshippers memorialized instances when they were rescued from danger. They did so in a variety of ways, from staging fictional accounts of danger and deliverance to the public praise of local patriots and annual festivals in honor of gods and goddesses for their roles in saving the community. This article examines the significance of epigraphic narratives of endangerment and rescue from the third century BC to the third century AD. It argues that these inscriptions joined individuals into an emotional community of those whose lives had been touched by the gods. These epigraphic narratives point to the social significance of having a status as one rescued by the gods. Talking about one’s own weakness, vulnerability, and misfortune was a key way for individuals and poleis to claim rights and privileges within communities, between them, and across time.

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Mirjam E. Kotwick and Christian Pfeiffer

Abstract

In Metaphysics 2.2, 994b21-27 Aristotle comments on how it is possible to think something that is infinitely divisible. Given that Aristotle denies elsewhere that it is possible to think an infinite number of items the passage offers important evidence for Aristotle’s positive account of how one can think something that is infinite. However, Aristotle’s statement in Metaphysics 2.2 has puzzled interpreters since antiquity. This puzzlement has been partly due to a textual problem in the passage. In this paper we first restore the original reading of Metaph. 2.2, 994b25-26 by making use of the evidence in Alexander of Aphrodisias’s commentary and second make sense of the restored passage by interpreting it in light of Aristotle’s thoughts on the infinite in Physics 3 and 8.

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Tyler Paytas and Nicholas R. Baima

Abstract

Commentators such as Terence Irwin and Christopher Shields claim that the Ring of Gyges argument in Republic 2 cannot demonstrate that justice is chosen only for its consequences. This is because valuing justice for its own sake is compatible with judging its value to be overridable. Through examination of the rational commitments involved in valuing normative ideals such as justice, we aim to show that this analysis is mistaken. If Glaucon is right that everyone would endorse Gyges’ behavior, it follows that nobody values justice intrinsically. Hence, the Gyges story constitutes a more serious challenge than critics maintain.

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The Murderers of Kotys the Thracian

From Demosthenes to Diogenes Laertios

Pietro Zaccaria

Abstract

In 360/359 BC, Kotys, king of the Odrysian Thracians, was killed by two brothers of Ainos. Confusion, however, soon arose around their identity. The aim of this article is to reconstruct and analyze the various traditions that spread in Antiquity about their identification. Demosthenes was the first to call the murderers Python and Herakleides of Ainos. His version of the facts was later followed by Philodemos, Plutarchos, and Philostratos. Aristoteles, however, called them Πύρρων (or Πάρρων) and Herakleides of Ainos. Diokles of Magnesia, probably following the same tradition as Aristoteles, confused Pyrrhon of Ainos with Pyrrhon of Elis. Similarly, Demetrios of Magnesia confused Herakleides of Ainos with Herakleides Pontikos. Finally, the figures of Kotys, Herakleides, and Python were perhaps reused by the author of the spurious Letters of Chion of Herakleia and recontextualized as symbols of the conflict between philosophy and tyranny.

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Konstantine Panegyres

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Dorothea Frede

Abstract

In recent decades the view that the disputed central books of Aristotle’s ethics are an integral part of the Eudemian rather than of the Nicomachean Ethics has gained ground for both historical and systematic reasons. This article contests that view, arguing not only that the Nicomachean Ethics represented Aristotle’s central text throughout antiquity, but that the discussion in the common books of such crucial concepts as justice, practical and theoretical reason, self-control and lack of self-control, are more compatible with the undisputed books of the Nicomachean Ethics than with those of the Eudemian Ethics.

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Felix J. Meister

Abstract

This article aims to address the problems posed by Sappho’s difficult fr. 114 V. It first revises the assumption that both lines need to display the same metrical profile and concludes that this assumption is unreliable. Then it offers a reconstruction of the fragment that is not restricted by the alleged need for metrical homogeneity.

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Orlando Gibbs