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Melissa Soenke, Florette Cohen, Jeff Greenberg and Uri Lifshin


Terror management theory and research indicate that humans cope with concerns about mortality by believing we are more than nonhuman animals. The current studies investigated whether this motivation plays a role in believing humans are more intelligent than other animals. Study 1 had participants think about mortality or another unpleasant topic. The study found that after the death reminder, participants had more negative reactions to a scientific article describing dolphins as smarter than humans, but not to an article that merely focused on dolphins’ intelligence. Study 2 had participants read an article about dolphins being smarter than humans or an article describing dolphin intelligence without a comparison to humans. Participants then completed a measure that assessed how close to consciousness thoughts of death were. Those who read that dolphins were smarter than humans exhibited higher levels of death-related thought. These results may have important implications for conserving intelligent animal species.

Mark M. Hickie, Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira and Mariana Martins da Costa Quinteiro


Resulting from cross-breeding a horse and a donkey, the mule influenced southeast Brazil’s economic development perhaps more so than any other domesticated animal; the mule served as the key transport vehicle during both Brazil’s 18th century gold era and 19th century coffee era. In enabling mining and agriculture products to traverse mountainous terrain to reach port cities near São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the mule played a central role in the region’s economic and ecological history. Although the mule has not been southeast Brazil’s primary transport method since the train’s arrival in the 1870s, rural and urban dwellers still employ the mule over short distances near two protected landmasses despite declining generational interest and use. More recently, with increasing leisure use as a companion animal, the mule stimulates tourism and local economic patterns via large gatherings while serving as a cultural symbol of Brazil’s patrimony.

Bingtao Su, Naoko Koda and Pim Martens


How ethical ideologies relate to public attitudes toward nonhuman animals is an increasingly prominent topic, yet it has been largely unstudied, particularly in Asian countries such as Japan. Using the Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ), Animal Attitude Scale (AAS), and Animal Issue Scale (AIS) in the present study, we examined how ethical ideologies and human demographics relate to public attitudes toward animals from a Japanese cultural perspective. The results of a questionnaire (N = 900) distributed throughout Japan indicate that public attitudes toward animals were positively associated with idealism and negatively associated with relativism. These findings are similar to those from China, but partly in contrast with those from the United States, where relativism was unrelated to attitudes toward animals. Our findings add to a growing recognition of how individual philosophy relates to public attitudes toward animals in Asian countries.

Of Cats and Men

Representations of Gender in Cat Food Advertising

Nieves Pascual Soler


The study analyzes the gender narratives linked to cats in Nestlé Purina Pet Care Company (NPPC) advertising. Out of the ten cat food products lines it markets, each offering from one to nine different formulas, nine are discussed. The focus is on dried food in pouch packages. It is argued that against the traditional association between cats and women, cat food advertising privileges masculine experiences. To support this claim, this article (a) analyzes the relationship between gender and food patterns; (b) probes the background for the perception of companion animals as projections of the human self; (c) examines representations of cats and food on select NPPC labels; and (d) matches gender narratives with the new demographics of US cat caregivers.

William Sarfo Ankomah


This paper examined reasons why information pertaining to nonhuman animal welfare and liberation should be introduced during childhood. Studies indicate that animal-welfare activists’ and abolitionists’ efforts to date may be insufficient given the pervasive environmental destruction and ongoing animal suffering. Moreover, research reveals that education related to animal welfare and liberation is systematically excluded from children’s education, and they thus remain unaware of the sources and associated health hazards of meat they consume. Conversely, children’s knowledge about animal welfare increases when exposed to literature on the topic, which enables them to make informed choices regarding meat consumption. This paper draws on animal-welfare and liberation literature to argue that augmenting children’s knowledge about animal welfare and liberation can foster children’s understanding, language, philosophy, and ability to make informed choices about their relationship with animals and the environment in general.

Anna L. Peterson


Canine rescue is a growing movement that affects the lives of tens of thousands of nonhuman animals and people every year. Rescue is noteworthy not only for its numbers, but also because it challenges common understandings of animal advocacy. Popular accounts often portray work on behalf of animals as sentimental, individualistic, and apolitical. In fact, work on behalf of animals has always been political, in multiple ways. It is characterized both by internal political tensions, especially between animal rights and welfare positions, and by complex relations to the broader public sphere. I analyze canine rescue, with a focus on pit bull rescue, to show that an important segment of canine rescue movements adopts an explicitly political approach which blurs the divide between rights and welfare, addresses the social context of the human-animal bond, and links animal advocacy to social justice.

Paul Ruiz Santos, María Belino, Ruben Rijo, José Piaggio and Juan Pablo Damián


Aggression is the most common dog behavioral problem, with important implications for public health. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of veterinarian clinicians of Montevideo regarding canine aggression, the sex effect, and the main breeds involved. One hundred veterinary clinics of Montevideo city were randomly selected to complete a survey about aggressiveness in dogs. Most veterinarians opined that males are more involved than females in canine aggression and that the Pit bull, the German Shepherd, and Uruguayan Cimarron breeds were the most involved in both types of aggression considered (between canines and towards people), while the Cocker Spaniel breed was involved in aggression towards humans and the Rottweiler breed in aggression between dogs. This work highlights that both veterinarians and other experts within the community identify the Uruguayan Cimarron as being aggressive, which indicates that the behavior of this breed may be of particular concern.

Marcel Robischon


Intangible natural heritage is a concept that has been addressed in several publications and that offers a new and expanded view onto world heritage conservation. However, the difference from intangible cultural heritage has not been clearly defined. One distinction in the categories of world heritage that are established in international conventions appears where “the intangible” is not created by humans but by a nonhuman animal. Living organisms sustain human life materially and provide inspiration to humans, both in their material form and by displaying behaviors, or via observable, yet not tangible, dynamic phenomena and processes. This includes migration patterns, aggregations, vocalizations or the formation of symbiotic and mutualistic inter-species relationships. Given the non-material character of these elements, their transmission by nonhuman living beings, and their importance to human culture, it is proposed that such phenomena are considered as intangible natural heritage sensu stricto in the discourse of world heritage.