The entry into force in 1997 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) symbolizes the coming of age of the law of arms control as a separate area of international law. It is not only the first treaty whereby a whole category of weapons of mass destruction, viz. chemical weapons, is completely banned, but it also puts into place a comprehensive compliance control system. For this purpose a specialized international organisation has been created with as its sole purpose the supervision of the commitments under this arms control treaty: the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) based in The Hague. Supervision under this Convention is an example of compliance management, which is cooperative rather than adversarial in character, in spite of the elaborate and intrusive inspection regime concerning not only the military component but also the civilian chemical industries worldwide. Thereby not only States Parties' military security concerns are taken care of, but also the concerns of the chemical industries with regard to the protection of confidential business information.
In general, this volume aims to provide a better understanding of some of the special characteristics of arms control law. One part of this volume highlights the unique characteristics of the compliance control model by providing a detailed analysis of the CWC, the OPCW and of the specific supervisory functions. The obligations of the signatories to the CWC are discussed in the other part. Although an important topic of general international law, clarity as to the obligations of Signatory States appears to be of special importance in the case of arms control treaties, for, given their security interests, it is crucial for States that at a minimum a
status quo between all the signatories is maintained. The main contributions are complemented by shorter comments on various aspects of the topics dealt with. The articles are all written by specialists in the field - academic and practitioners- making this book a valuable source for academics, diplomats, (international) civil servants, and practitioners involved in the work of the OPCW, arms control (law) or general international law.
A total of 84 documents are reproduced here including arms control agreements, regional peace and security agreements, and forces reduction agreements, as well as 34 instruments controlling particular weapons. In addition, explanatory charts help the researcher to locate instruments according to specific criteria such as penal characteristics, applicability (war and peace), and extent of ratification.
Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.
This reference work contains a systematic collection of the most essential documents relating to peacekeeping in its widest sense, concentrating on efforts within the United Nations' framework. It contains the text of former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali's
Agenda for Peace, the related supplement, the comprehensive texts of the most relevant model peace missions agreements, the texts of all authorization resolutions, as well as an index of all UNSC resolutions dealing with peacekeeping. It also contains the texts of the UN Use of Force resolutions relating to Korea, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda and Haiti. It is an essential reference work for researchers, international and non-governmental organizations, and students involved in peacekeeping.
This is the third work in the series of conferences held in Singapore on various aspects of United Nations Peacekeeping operations, under the auspices of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the Institute of Political Studies (IPS) of Singapore and the National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA) of Japan. The 1997 Conference focused on humanitarian action and peacekeeping operations and brought together key practitioners and scholars from the Security Council, those interested in government, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), other humanitarian NGOs, academics and military personnel.
Since the end of the Cold War, the number and complexity of UN peacekeeping operations have increased dramatically due to profound changes in many areas of the world. The recent trend has seen a shift from inter-state to intra-state conflicts, bringing in its wake a myriad of operational, legal and political questions, such as the very relevance and applicability of the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of the state. Parties to recent conflicts have no central authority and little or no regard for international humanitarian law. Interested and involved parties on the peacekeeping and humanitarian scene have also changed and multiplied. All these factors render humanitarian action more complex, dangerous and difficult for all parties involved.
The book reviews four United Nations peacekeeping operations that have undergone immense difficulties, viz. in Somalia, the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Liberia. It debates the pertinent political framework for humanitarian action in each case. It explores the relationship between humanitarian and military action, of coordination with regional organizations and multinational force, as well as fundamental questions regarding the role and responsibility of the member states of the Security Council. Its findings can provide policy-makers, researchers and analysts of international affairs with a sober and thorough assessment of past experience and lessons for the future.
This book argues that the efforts of international mediators to stop the war in Bosnia were deliberately thwarted by the factions, who chose war over peace. Major powers backed clients among the warring parties, and prolonged the war, instead of helping to bring it to an end. NATO sat on the fence when it could have helped bring peace, leading to two more years of war. When the USA finally engaged in the search for peace it did so for domestic political reasons, trampled on the very moral precepts it had used to kill off earlier peace plans, used the building-blocks of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, without acknowledgement, to draft the Dayton documents, and ended up with a plan that was inferior by far to the earlier Vance-Owen or Stoltenberg-Owen plans. Thoroughly documented, this book will long be discussed by diplomatic historians of the conflict.
This book aims at defining a rationale for the continued use of military armed force(s) by states. Central to this publication are the answers to fundamental questions pertaining to the convention of war, as formulated by Martin van Creveld: `to define just who is allowed to kill whom, for what ends, under what circumstances, and by what means'. Above all, the authors take into account developments and trends within the elements of the Clausewitzian trinity supporting the Westphalian nation-state: `The People (or the Society)', `The Government' and 'The Armed Forces (or The Military)'.
The change in the Atlantic-European security environment, and the effects that this will have on the form and content of national and multilateral security strategies and doctrines, form the background to this publication. Moreover, the possible impact of societal changes on West European states, as a consequence of European integration, are analysed and discussed. Finally, the consequences of 'out-of-area' and police-type functions for armed forces in addition to the classical defence role are related to the size and composition of future forces.
First, in Chapters Two (Martin van Creveld) and Three (Jan Geert Siccama), the Clausewitzian dictum, trinitarian theory, and the - absence of - alternative theories of warfare are discussed. Next, Chapters Four (Zeev Maoz) and Five (Jan van der Meulen) deal with societal changes and trends within Western Society at large which affect the future use of armed forces. Chapters Six (Koen Koch) and Seven (Jaap de Wilde) concentrate on the future relevance of the nation-state and the governing bodies in relation to the ongoing process of European political integration and multilateralization of diplomatic interaction. Chapters Eight (Jan Willem Honig), Nine (Kees Homan), and Ten (Robert Bunker) address how present-day changes and trends affect the armed forces. Respectively, the authors address issues relating to military strategy, personnel, and technology. Finally, Chapter Eleven (Gert de Nooy and Rienk Terpstra) provides an overview of topical highlights and tentative conclusions emanating from both the chapters and the discussions held during the workshop held in conjunction with this book.
This book will be of interest to European policy-makers, defence planners, officers-under-training in military and defence academies, and students of international relations, political science and security.
This book is about European ground and air forces after the Cold War and the potential role they might - or might not - play in shaping a pragmatic, common European foreign and security policy. It deals with future co-operation between West European armies and air forces. Challenges, in the form of politico-military strategic interests at stake and the corresponding risks, as well as the possible responses to these challenges, in the form of national and multilateral military doctrines and the execution thereof, are scrutinized and dealt with.
First, in Chapters Two (James Gow), Three (François Mermet), and Four (Stephen Cambone), the strategic rationale and the political-military implications of an overall European security and defence policy are discussed. Next, Chapters Five (Trevor Taylor), Six (Madeleine Sandström), and Seven (Lothar Rühl) deal with the harmonization and restructuring of national defence policies and their tools. Chapters Eight (Tony Mason), Nine (Jan Folmer), and Ten (Luc Stainier), then concentrate on the role, missions and means of the ground, air and joint components of a collective European military instrument for the implementation of a future European security and defence policy.
Finally, in Chapter Eleven the editor provides an overview of topical highlights and tentative conclusions emanating from both the previous chapters and the discussions during the workshop of experts that was held in conjunction with this book.
This book is of interest to European policy-makers, defence planners, officers-under-training in military and defence academies, and students of international relations, political science and European security.
Bertrand de Rossanet is the pen name of a senior international civil servant who has been involved in negotiations and other activities carried out by the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia from its earliest days. In this fascinating short book, which fits well into the Nijhoff Law Specials series, he describes and analyses the events which have taken place since 1992 with great skill, and with an understanding shared by few. Bertrand de Rossanet's long experience, together with his inside knowledge, provides a vantage point from which unique observations can be made. Nobody who wishes to comprehend the peacemaking and peacekeeping processes being played out in the former Yugoslavia, should miss reading this very special volume.