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Erfahrungen von Identität und Alterität im 18. Jahrhundert
Menschen, Waren, Texte und Ideen zirkulieren im 18. Jahrhundert über den Atlantik und begründen so eine transatlantische Aufklärung.
Der vorliegende Band geht auf ein interdisziplinäres Forschungskolloquium an der Universität Paderborn zurück. Fachvertreter:innen der Komparatistik, Romanistik, Germanistik, Geschichtswissenschaft und Philosophie richten den Blick auf den Atlantik als Transfer- und Verkehrsraum des 18. Jahrhunderts. Im atlantischen Raum, so der Tenor der hier versammelten Beiträge, werden die inneren Widersprüche dieses Jahrhunderts mit besonderer Anschaulichkeit sichtbar, insofern sich hier Freiheit und Sklaverei, Gleichheit und Kolonialismus, Autonomie und Heteronomie kreuzen. Systematisch lesbar wird damit eine transatlantische Aufklärung, und d.h. die Selbstbehauptung und -reflexion der europäischen Aufklärung in steter Auseinandersetzung mit dem transatlantischen ‚Anderen‘.
Author: Delphine Calle
Dans Racine et les trois publics de l’amour Delphine Calle analyse la séduction du théâtre racinien à partir des débats sur les passions du XVIIe siècle français. Concupiscence ou pur amour, amour-propre ou désir de plaire, l’amour est au cœur de la tragédie racinienne : moteur de l’action tragique, il émeut le public. Celui-ci est triple : le protagoniste amoureux est non seulement scruté par les spectateurs dans la salle, passionnés par la passion, il s’expose devant le personnage qu’il aime et paraît devant le tribunal de sa propre conscience. À l’instar des moralistes du XVIIe siècle, grands censeurs du théâtre, ce livre établit le parallèle entre les expériences amoureuse et théâtrale, pour mieux percer la dramaturgie de l’amour chez Racine.

In Racine et les trois publics de l’amour Delphine Calle unravels the seductive power of Racinian tragedy by turning to the 17th-century French debates on love. Whether it is staged as concupiscence or pure love, as self-love or the desire to please, love is at the heart of Racinian theatre: it sparks tragic action and moves its spectators. These spectators are threefold: the tragic lover is not only scrutinized by the real audience, who is passionate about passion, he also feels the gaze of his loved one and of his own conscience, that questions the value of his love. Following the 17th- century moralist theatre critics, this monograph aligns amorous and theatrical experiences, in order to reveal Racine’s dramaturgy of love.
Editor: Ovanes Akopyan
If the universe were conceived to fulfill a certain divine plan or to manifest God’s will and glory, what would the place of an individual be within this plan? What is more, if, from the very beginning of its existence and through divine providence, it were predestined to be driven toward a certain end, how could people adjust their individual lives to the incognizable universal design and react to the obscure future fraught with both luck and failure?

These questions, which have occupied humanity for centuries, formed a remarkable element of early modern European thought. This collection of essays presents new insights into what shaped and constituted reflections on fate and fortune between, roughly, 1400 and 1650, both in word and image. This volume argues that these ideas were emblematic of a more fundamental argument about the self, society, and the universe and shows that their influence was more widespread, geographically and thematically, than hitherto assumed.

Contributors: Damiano Acciarino, Ovanes Akopyan, Elisabeth Blum, Paul Richard Blum, Jo Coture, Guido Giglioni, Dalia Judovitz, Sophie Raux, Orlando Reade, and John Sellars.
Over the past few decades, a growing number of studies have highlighted the importance of the ‘School of Salamanca’ for the emergence of colonial normative regimes and the formation of a language of normativity on a global scale. According to this influential account, American and Asian actors usually appear as passive recipients of normative knowledge produced in Europe. This book proposes a different perspective and shows, through a knowledge historical approach and several case studies, that the School of Salamanca has to be considered both an epistemic community and a community of practice that cannot be fixed to any individual place. Instead, the School of Salamanca encompassed a variety of different sites and actors throughout the world and thus represents a case of global knowledge production.

Contributors are: Adriana Álvarez, Virginia Aspe, Marya Camacho, Natalie Cobo, Thomas Duve, José Luis Egío, Dolors Folch, Enrique González González, Lidia Lanza, Esteban Llamosas, Osvaldo R. Moutin, and Marco Toste.
Zitat und skeptische Poetik bei Michel de Montaigne und Pierre Bayle
Author: Simon Godart
Wie verhält sich das Verwenden von Worten anderer im Modus des Zitats zum Denken und zur Form eines skeptischen Diskurses in der französischen Spätrenaissance und Frühaufklärung?
Montaignes emprunts der humanistischen Gelehrsamkeit sind zentraler Bestandteil der Poetik seiner Essais; seine charakteristische peinture de passage orchestriert einen Wechsel der Stimmen innerhalb seines großen humanistischen Selbstportraits. Zitieren – avant la lettre, da Montaigne noch nicht über den Begriff und die Konvention verfügt – wird zum formalen Mittel eines skeptischen Schreibens, das die Dinge in der Schwebe halten will. Bayle greift diese Technik in seiner „Rüstkammer der Aufklärung“ auf, um sie mit den Mitteln der bibliographischen Akribie neu zu gestalten; nunmehr auf den Begriff gebracht, wird Zitieren zum kritischen modus operandi einer skeptischen Erschütterung des historischen Bestands der philosophischen Tradition.
In Adam Boreel (1602-1665): A Collegiant’s Attempt to Reform Christianity, Francesco Quatrini offers a reassessment of the life and thought of Adam Boreel, a leading member of the Dutch nonconformist Collegiant movement. Usually regarded as a less important member of this religious group, Boreel is described as a forerunner whose ideas influenced later Collegiants.

Drawing on both archival and published sources, Francesco Quatrini provides the first modern biography of Boreel as well as a critical analysis of his writings. He corrects misconceptions about Boreel, who appears here as an intriguing figure who drew his views from several different sources. In this way, Francesco Quatrini revealed that Boreel was a major leader in the era’s intellectual discourse.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola’s Disputationes adversus astrologiam divinatricem and Its Reception
Author: Ovanes Akopyan
In Debating the Stars, Ovanes Akopyan sheds new light on the astrological controversies that arose in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries after the publication of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola’s Disputationes adversus astrologiam divinatricem (1496). This treatise has often been held responsible for a contemporary reassessment of the status of astrology, a discipline that attracted widespread fascination in the Renaissance. Akopyan’s reconstruction of the development of Pico’s views demonstrates that the Disputationes was a continuation of rather than a drastic rupture with the rest of his legacy. By investigating the philosophical and humanist foundations for Pico’s attack on astrological predictions, Akopyan challenges the popular assumption that the treatise was written under Girolamo Savonarola’s spell. He shows instead how it was appropriated ideologically by pro-Savonarolan circles after Pico’s death.
This book also offers a comprehensive study of the immediate reception of the Disputationes across Italy and Europe and reveals that the debates initiated by Pico’s intervention pervaded all of the European intellectual oikumene.
Descartes and the ‘Ingenium’ tracks the significance of embodied thought ( ingenium) in the philosophical trajectory of the founding father of dualism. The first part of the book defines the notion of ingenium in relation to core concepts of Descartes's philosophy, such as memory and enumeration. It focuses on Descartes’s uses of this notion in methodical thinking, mathematics, and medicine. The studies in the second part place the Cartesian ingenium within preceding scholastic and humanist pedagogical and natural-philosophical traditions, and highlight its hitherto ignored social and political significance for Descartes himself as a member of the Republic of Letters. By embedding Descartes' notion of ingenium in contemporaneous medical, pedagogical, but also social and literary discourses, this volume outlines the fundamentally anthropological and ethical underpinnings of Descartes's revolutionary epistemology.

Contributors: Igor Agostini, Roger Ariew, Harold J. Cook, Raphaële Garrod, Denis Kambouchner, Alexander Marr, Richard Oosterhoff, David Rabouin, Dennis L. Sepper, and Theo Verbeek.
The sixteen essays in this volume trace the development of Platonism in the history of Western thought, starting with the revival of the Platonic tradition in the early modern period that followed the rediscovery and translation of important Greek texts. Special attention is devoted to Marsilio Ficino’s translations and commentaries; to the relationship between Platonism and Christianity; to the influence of Platonic metaphysics on the mystical tradition – in particular on Jacob Böhme and Emanuel Swedenborg; to the impact of idealism on the hermeneutical criticism of traditional philosophical categories and to the ways in which the so-called ‘Critique of Modernity’ promoted a new reading of the Platonic dialogues. The emphasis throughout is on demonstrating the theoretical and historical continuity of Platonism over the centuries.

Contributors are: Laura Candiotto, Pierpaolo Ciccarelli, Anna Corrias, Francesca Maria Crasta, Eva del Soldato, Laura Follesa, Guido Giglioni, Nicholas Holland, Andrea Le Moli, Brunello Lotti, Cecilia Muratori, Arnold Oberhammer, Paula Oliveira e Silva, Valery Rees, Pasquale Terracciano, and Angelo Maria Vitale.
Play and Illusion in Renaissance Humanism
Author: Timothy Kircher
In Before Enlightenment: Play and Illusion in Renaissance Humanism, Timothy Kircher argues for new ways of appreciating Renaissance humanist philosophy. Literary qualities – tone, voice, persona, style, imagery – composed a core of their philosophizing, so that play and illusion, as well as rational certainty, formed pre-Enlightenment ideas about knowledge, ethics, and metaphysics.

Before Enlightenment takes issue with the long-standing view of humanism’s philosophical mediocrity. It shows new features of Renaissance culture that help explain the origins not only of Enlightenment rationalists, but also of early modern novelists and essayists. If humanist writings promoted objective knowledge based on reason’s supremacy over emotion, they also showed awareness of one’s place and play in the world. The animal rationale is also the homo ludens.