In this paper, the Probit model was established based on the survey data of 105 loan officers in China’s Western Region, and the factors influencing the willingness of mortgage loan supply of farmland management rights under the government-led model were investigated from the perspective of financial supply. The research shows that farmers’ income, farmers’ policy awareness, farmland scale, loan experience, risk compensation system, legal perfection and policy stability have a positive impact on the willingness of loan officers to issue mortgage loans for farmland management rights. Factors such as farmers’ age and education level have a negative impact on the willingness to supply. In addition, by comparing the stability of the regression model before and after the addition of risk compensation system, legal perfection degree and policy stability degree, it is concluded that the policy variables have a great influence on the decision-making of financial institutions.
In this paper, relevant literatures on precision medicine and primary health care under big data from 2005 to 2020 were selected on CNKI, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, PUBMED and so on. A total of 98 literatures were included to summarize the development, difficulties and suggestions on precision medicine in China. This paper analyzes the application of precision medicine in China’s primary health care and the technical and social problems that precision medicine faces in the era of big data, and puts forward the next research direction of community precision medicine prevention and treatment. Conclusion,: the application of precision medicine in primary health care is still in its infancy. Genomic data, sample management, data quality control standards and data management platform construction are the foundation of community precision medicine. “Intelligent precision medicine” will be the future development direction.
Herders-farmers violent conflicts and flare-ups have spread throughout central and southern communities in Nigeria, but exclude the urban areas. I examine ‘herders – urban residents’ conflicts. Herders roam their cattle from outskirts to city roads, disrupting traffic and leaving behind trails of excrement and offensive smells causing dangerous nuisance. I argue that the new practice of cattle herders’ encroachments on city roads poses some socio-economic risks such as environmental decay, air pollution, displacement of urban livelihoods, road accidents and non-violent conflicts. Primary data was elicited from herders and residents in four major cities in Nigeria such as Aba, Awka, Nsukka and Owerri. I conclude by reflecting on the consequences of these socio-economic and environment-related risk factors which combine to undermine the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG s), and proffer solutions to address them. I make forecast in the form of early warning system that; cattle herders – urban residents cantankerous and confrontational interrelationships (though ‘non-violent conflicts’) could escalate and implode into dangerous ‘violent conflict’ scenarios if neglected.
During times when terrorism is eroding almost all industries of victim economies, tourism industry is thought to be much prone to it. This paper investigates the long run relationship between terrorism and tourism for South Asian and African countries separately, allowing us to compare the results of the two regions. Long run relationship is analyzed via dynamic panel techniques (PMG, MG and DFE) on data for 22 African and 6 South Asian countries from 1991 to 2013. These panel cointegration techniques quantify the long-run relationship between terrorism and tourism. Terrorism has been found detrimental for tourism industry both in Africa and South Asia. Empirical findings affirm that terrorism has a long-run negative impact on tourism in both regions. Recommendations, on the basis of findings are proposed at the end.
This study investigates demand for real money balances in Africa using panel time-series data from Nigeria and Ghana between 1970 and 2014. The study employs Levin, Lin, Chu common unit root process and Pedroni Residual Cointegration Test which the results reveal that all the variables in the model are stationary and cointegrated respectively. Data sourced from the World Development Indicators (WDI) were analyzed using Panel Two-Stage Estimated Generalized Least Squares (cross-section Seemingly Unrelated Regression model (SURE)) with Instrumental Variables (IV). The results conform to the liquidity preference theory, with all the variables – inflation, real interest rates, and official exchange rates are statistically significant except real income. It is recommended that the monetary authorities in Africa especially the economies of Nigeria and Ghana should adopt appropriate monetary policies by placing interest rates, inflation and official exchange rates at acceptable levels to boost income through private sector investments.
Using a combination of literature analysis and historical literature comparison methods, the study analyzes the international and domestic social background of Glasnost and journalism reform, reviews and studies Gorbachev’s objectives, measures and development process of carrying out journalism reform. Journalism reform is a part of Glasnost and also a method demand of other reforms within socialism. The implementation of the reform of the journalism has taken a variety of measures, and has gone through three historical stages: impediment stage, expansion stage and development of liberalization stage. The results show that the failure of journalism reform and the disintegration of the state are caused by the political and economic situation in the Soviet Union and the historical legacy problems. However, a series of improper measures carried out by the journalism reform undoubtedly accelerated the disintegration of the Soviet Union.