In the process of the invasion wars of Shah Abbas the First (1571–1629), the history of the emergence of two Georgian language islands in Iran (Fereydany Georgian) and Azerbaijan (Ingilo Georgian) begins. The extension of control to the areas considered the cradle of Georgian Christianity, Tao, Klarjeti, Shavsheti, and partially Javakheti, can be interpreted as a reaction of the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus policy of Shah Abbas. Due to linguistic isolation, the third Georgian language island (Our Georgian) is formed in Turkish territory. The first period of the formation of the socio-cultural landscape of the language islands can be characterized as a parallel process of simultaneous integration and isolation of the Christian minorities in the environment of the Islamic majority. The unconscious use of Christian practices preserved in the cultural memory appears as a component of this process. The distinctive feature of Georgian Crypto-Orthodoxy is the conscious as well as unconscious use or preservation of Christian cultural components. The focus is on preserving the identity of simultaneous transformation and accommodation in relation to the environment of the new Islamic majority.
This present study aims to challenge simplistic views of division and boundaries between Muslims and Christians. It delves into the cultural and artistic relationship between the Safavid ruling elite and the newly arrived Armenians in seventeenth-century Isfahan. The primary goal is to understand how the Armenian population merged with the predominantly Muslim community of Isfahan. An insightful perspective is gained by examining the Armenian architecture in Isfahan, where Armenians adapted and appropriated local architectural elements, creating a sense of belonging and shared identity. To gain a comprehensive understanding, the study delves into the wider cultural and political context of Isfahan during that time, drawing from a diverse array of European, Persian, and Armenian sources. By adopting this inclusive approach, the study explores the complex interplay of Christian and Muslim, as well as Safavid and Armenian elements within Isfahani society, thereby shedding light on the multifaceted identities at play.
Based on the primary sources, the article examined the position and status of the Christian population during the reign of Nadir Shah Afshar (1688–1747). Special attention is paid to the question of privileges and patronage of the Armenian community. it is argued that the supportive policy of Nadir Shah towards representatives of Christian churches and monasteries was expressed in numerous decrees and firmans of the Afshar ruler. Thanks to the patronage of Nadir Shah, the possessions of the diocese of Uch-Kilsa (Echmiadzin) were exempted from taxes; they were allowed not only to rebuild churches, but even to build new ones. Nadir Shah also patronized the resettlement of the Armenian population from the neighboring Ottoman Empire, etc. An analysis of the sources helps to examine religious freedom in the Afshar’s state, including its tax policy in relation to Christian churches and monasteries.
This article rereads the works of Carlos de Nesry and Abraham Serfaty, two important Jewish intellectuals from Morocco, to conceptualize their theorization of state and society in post-1956 Morocco. The article argues that Moroccan Jews’ striving for an inclusive citizenship in and belonging to the independent nation took several forms, but the most salient of which were the two embodied in the work of de Nesry and Serfaty. Although there is a robust literature on Moroccan Jews, these theorizations have not received the scholarly examination they deserve nor have they been put in dialogue with each other to tease out their significance for the situation of Jews in the Moroccan context. This article is an attempt to bring attention to the implications of a locally produced Jewish political theory for the larger Moroccan nation. By examining de Nesry’s and Serfaty’s writing against the background of political repression and increasing authoritarianism, I show how Jewish intellectuals navigated their place in a fast-changing post-independence country, furnishing ideas and projects that could have created a different Morocco.
This article discusses the ways in which Hebrew writers in late Ottoman and Mandatory Palestine interacted with the history of early Islam and the relations between Muslims and Jews of the Arabian Peninsula and the political, cultural, and social functions their reconstruction fulfilled in the critical junctures of Hebrew culture in the East. The article argues that these Hebrew works reflected the development of Hebrew culture in Palestine and masqueraded the advancement of Zionist tenants among Jewish settlers on the land. Those Zionist ideals encompassed: the revival of Hebrew, the physical and cultural return to the Orient, the demonstration of the cultural and material profits Zionists might bring to the indigenous population of Palestine through underscoring a Jewish influence on Islam, and finally, to promote aspects of Jewish heroism and sacrifice by focusing on the early confrontation between Jews and Muslims.
This study aims to explore the complexity of the term Gurān and how its meaning has evolved over time. The research poses several research questions, including the historical and cultural context of the term, different perspectives on whether Gurān people should be considered a distinct ethnic group or part of the larger Kurdish population, and the role of the term in shaping social, cultural, and political dynamics among different social groups. Additionally, the study seeks to explore the perceptions and experiences of Gurān people regarding the use of the term and their understanding of their own identity. Through a methodical analysis of historical and cultural texts, interviews, as well as contemporary discussions in social media, this research demonstrates a method for studying complex topics such as the Gurān identity and provides insight into the complexities of endonyms and exonyms and their relation to broader issues of identity and conflict.