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New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts

Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Second Edition. Reprint revised by Michael Bothe

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Michael Bothe

It is a major cultural achievement that violence in armed conflicts is restrained by international legal rules. As the nature of these conflicts changes, these rules have to be adapted accordingly in order to provide effective protection for the victims. The adoption of the two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions in 1977 was a major step in this development. The authors, who were involved in the negotiation of these two treaties, give a first hand account of the meaning of the text and the intent of the negotiators. The book is, thus, an important tool to better understand and implement these treaties which have proved their salutary importance in the all too many conflicts during the last decades. The current volume is a revised reprint, with new introductory materials, of the original text published in 1982.

Protecting the Displaced

Deepening the Responsibility to Protect

Edited by Sara E. Davies and Luke Glanville

This edited collection has sought contributions from some of the foremost scholars of refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) studies to engage with the conceptual and practical difficulties entailed in realising how the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) can be fulfilled by states and the international community to protect vulnerable persons. Contributors to this book were given one theme: to consider, based on their experience and knowledge, how R2P may be aligned with the protection of the displaced. Contributions explore the history and progress so far in aligning R2P with refugee and IDP protection, as well as examining the conceptual and practical issues that arise when attempting to expand R2P from words into deeds.

Issues of Arms Control Law and the Chemical Weapons Convention

Obligations Inter Se and Supervisory Mechanisms

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Edited by Eric P.J. Myjer

The entry into force in 1997 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) symbolizes the coming of age of the law of arms control as a separate area of international law. It is not only the first treaty whereby a whole category of weapons of mass destruction, viz. chemical weapons, is completely banned, but it also puts into place a comprehensive compliance control system. For this purpose a specialized international organisation has been created with as its sole purpose the supervision of the commitments under this arms control treaty: the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) based in The Hague. Supervision under this Convention is an example of compliance management, which is cooperative rather than adversarial in character, in spite of the elaborate and intrusive inspection regime concerning not only the military component but also the civilian chemical industries worldwide. Thereby not only States Parties' military security concerns are taken care of, but also the concerns of the chemical industries with regard to the protection of confidential business information.
In general, this volume aims to provide a better understanding of some of the special characteristics of arms control law. One part of this volume highlights the unique characteristics of the compliance control model by providing a detailed analysis of the CWC, the OPCW and of the specific supervisory functions. The obligations of the signatories to the CWC are discussed in the other part. Although an important topic of general international law, clarity as to the obligations of Signatory States appears to be of special importance in the case of arms control treaties, for, given their security interests, it is crucial for States that at a minimum a status quo between all the signatories is maintained. The main contributions are complemented by shorter comments on various aspects of the topics dealt with. The articles are all written by specialists in the field - academic and practitioners- making this book a valuable source for academics, diplomats, (international) civil servants, and practitioners involved in the work of the OPCW, arms control (law) or general international law.

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M. Cherif Bassiouni

A total of 84 documents are reproduced here including arms control agreements, regional peace and security agreements, and forces reduction agreements, as well as 34 instruments controlling particular weapons. In addition, explanatory charts help the researcher to locate instruments according to specific criteria such as penal characteristics, applicability (war and peace), and extent of ratification.

Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

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Edited by Gwyn Prins and Hylke Tromp

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Edited by Gert de Nooy

This book is about European ground and air forces after the Cold War and the potential role they might - or might not - play in shaping a pragmatic, common European foreign and security policy. It deals with future co-operation between West European armies and air forces. Challenges, in the form of politico-military strategic interests at stake and the corresponding risks, as well as the possible responses to these challenges, in the form of national and multilateral military doctrines and the execution thereof, are scrutinized and dealt with.
First, in Chapters Two (James Gow), Three (François Mermet), and Four (Stephen Cambone), the strategic rationale and the political-military implications of an overall European security and defence policy are discussed. Next, Chapters Five (Trevor Taylor), Six (Madeleine Sandström), and Seven (Lothar Rühl) deal with the harmonization and restructuring of national defence policies and their tools. Chapters Eight (Tony Mason), Nine (Jan Folmer), and Ten (Luc Stainier), then concentrate on the role, missions and means of the ground, air and joint components of a collective European military instrument for the implementation of a future European security and defence policy.
Finally, in Chapter Eleven the editor provides an overview of topical highlights and tentative conclusions emanating from both the previous chapters and the discussions during the workshop of experts that was held in conjunction with this book.
This book is of interest to European policy-makers, defence planners, officers-under-training in military and defence academies, and students of international relations, political science and European security.

John Woodliffe

The stationing of foreign armed forces abroad in peacetime has been a constant and distinctive feature of the post-1945 bipolar world. This book is the first systematic study of the subject to look beyond the areas of criminal and civil jurisdiction to broader issues of international law arising out of the establishment and use of foreign military installations in time of peace.
Implementation of basing agreements between states sending and states hosting foreign armed forces has resulted in a large body of state practice that includes such major international incidents as the U.S. air raid on Libya in 1986 and the U.S. intervention in Panama in 1989. This book assesses the future of foreign military installations against the background of the end of the Cold War, the unification of Germany, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, and the emerging European security order.