In A Grammar of Murui (Bue), Katarzyna Wojtylak provides the first complete description of Murui, an endangered Witotoan language, spoken by the Murui-Muina (Witoto) people from Colombia and Peru. The grammar is written from a functional and typological perspective, using natural language data gathered during several fieldtrips to the Caquetá-Putumayo region between 2013 and 2017. The many remarkable characteristics of Murui include a complex system of classifiers, differential subject and object marking, person-marking verb morphology, evidential and epistemic marking, head-tail linkage, and a system of numerals, including the fraternal (brother-based) forms for ‘three’ and ‘four’. The grammar represents an important contribution to the study of Witotoan languages, linguistic typology of Northwest Amazonia, and language contact in the area.
A Global Studies Perspective on Brazil-Mozambique Development Discourse
What history and motivations make up the discourses we are taught to hold, and spread, as common sense? As a member of Brazil's upper middle class, Ana Beatriz Ribeiro grew up with the image that to be developed was to be as European as possible. However, as a researcher in Europe during her country's Workers' Party era, she kept reading that Africans should be repaid for developing Brazilian society – via Brazil's "bestowal" of development upon Africa as an "emerging power." In Modernization Dreams, Lusotropical Promises, the researcher investigates where these two worldviews might intersect, diverge and date back to, gauging relations between representatives and projects of the Brazilian and Mozambican states, said to be joined in cooperation more than others.
Author: Renzo S. Duin
Thanks to Renzo Duin’s annotated translation, the voice of Lodewijk Schmidt—an Afrodiasporic Saramakka Maroon from Surinam—is finally available for Anglophone audiences worldwide. More than anything else, Schmidt’s three mid-twentieth-century ethnographic accounts tell the tragic story of Indigenous Peoples of the Eastern Guiana Highlands (northern Brazil, and southern Suriname and French Guiana). Schmidt’s is a story that takes account of the pathological mechanisms of colonialism, in which Indigenous Peoples and African Diaspora communities, both victims of colonialism, vilify each other falling privy to the divide-and-conquer mentality mechanisms of colonialism.

Accounts like that of the death and mourning of a magnificent Indigenous leader, Alapité, on 13-14 August 1941, suggest a deep respect on the part of the Maroon author, while his accounts also show his awareness of how the Indigenous Peoples vilified the Maroons. Beyond the ethnographic element, Duin argues that Schmidt was sent on a covert mission to determine whether or not the Nazis had engaged in covert missions and if they had established bases and airfields in the region.

As current ecological disasters, incurred by neocolonial, neoliberal and geopolitical practices, threaten to completely destroy the Amazonian forests that Schmidt describes, his meticulous accounts underscore the predetermined tragedy that is the result of the European and later North-American presence in present-day Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil. Duin’s profound knowledge of the history, topography, and fauna of the region contextualizes Schmidt’s ethnographic accounts and forces us to take account of the catastrophe that is deforestation and ethnocide of the Indigenous Peoples of the Eastern Guiana Highlands.
The Spatiality of the Hispanic Avant-Garde: Ultraísmo & Estridentismo, 1918-1927 is a thorough exploration of the meanings and values Hispanic poets and artists assigned to four iconic locations of modernity: the city, the cafés, means of transportation, and the sea, during the first decades of the 20th century. Joining important studies on Spatiality, Palomares-Salas convincingly argues that an unsolvable tension between place and space is at the core of the Hispanic avant-garde cultural production. A refreshing, transatlantic perspective on Ultraism and Stridentism, the book moves the Hispanic vanguards forward into broader, international discussions on space and modernism, and offers innovative readings of well-known, as well as rarely studied works.
Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia presents the results of in-depth studies of grammars, vocabularies and religious texts, dating from the sixteenth – nineteenth century. The researches involve twenty (extinct) indigenous Mesoamerican and South American languages: Matlatzinca, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec (Mexico); K’iche, Kaqchikel (Guatemala); Amage, Aymara, Cholón, Huarpe, Kunza, Mochica, Mapudungun, Proto-Tacanan, Pukina, Quechua, Uru-Chipaya (Peru); Tehuelche (Patagonia); (Tupi-)Guarani (Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay).
The results of the studies include: a) a digital model of a good, conveniently arranged vocabulary, applicable to all indigenous Amerindian languages; b) disclosure of intertextual relationships, language contacts, circulation of knowledge; c) insights in grammatical structures; d) phone analyses; e) transcriptions, so that the texts remain accessible for further research. f) the architecture of grammars; g) conceptual evolutions and innovations in grammaticography.

Abstract

This study hopes to show the difficulties which the full identification of some of the versions of two of the doctrinal works attributed to friar Bernardino de Sahagún have entailed. We particularly make reference to the liturgical sources and to the Catholic Canons which determined the composition of the Evangeliario and the Sermonario in the process of conversion. We include also a representational sample of both works, in Mexican Language, along with their Spanish translation, wherein the discursive and linguistic resources employed have all been considered, in order to render more effective the evangelization process of the indigenous population.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
Author: Otto Zwartjes

Abstract

It is a common practice that the so-called particles belong in fact to a plethora of categories and it has been often demonstrated that missionary grammarians and lexicographers are straightforward in their parts of speech system, and anything which falls outside these models was usually gathered in a final section devoted to the particles. In fact, the history of particles goes back to Antiquity. Basalenque decided to break with the traditional model and compiled an independent work devoted to the particles, between his grammar and his dictionary. In this paper, Zwartjes demonstrates how “particles” are defined and classified, and which decisions Basalenque made in order to include them in the Tratado, and omitting them in the grammars and dictionaries. The hitherto unknown properties of Matlatzinca motivated Basalenque to develop innovating descriptive approaches.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia

Abstract

A volume of Andean indigenous linguistic materials which is kept in the British Library includes a Quechua and an Amage confession manual, written by the same hand and most probably dating from the eighteenth century, but possibly copied from earlier texts.

Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz explains the context and manuscript history, makes an analysis of the most salient linguistic features of the Chinchaysuyu Quechua confession manual and presents its transcription. The Quechua text includes Central Peruvian Quechua lexical and morphological features, as opposed to what was the commonly used ‘general language’, a Southern Quechua variety. It also shows a tendency towards a media lengua (mixed language): the structure is entirely Quechua, but almost half of the words are relexified in Spanish. It reflects colonial power structures, but at the same time a certain intent at communicative pragmatism. It is probably the earliest documented example of a nascent variety of a mixed language in the Andes, and due to its inconsistent and unsystematic variations it is not unlike Spanglish.

Astrid Alexander-Bakkerus provides a commented transcription and translation of the first Amage confession manual of two included in the manuscript volume. The Amage confession manual seems to be the earliest known text in the Amuesha (or Yanesha’) language, which belongs to the Arawakan language family, and is spoken to the east of the central Andes. Due to the lack of early colonial documentation of Amage, the understanding and analysis of the confession manual has to remain partly hypothetical. With respect to contact phenomena, the text uses a number of loanwords from Quechua and Spanish. Some of the Quechua words may have been borrowed via Christian texts where the Quechua words had already been re-semanticised; others may be older, such as the numbers from ‘six’ to ‘nine’; a few words reflect the economic character of the relationship of the Amages and the Spanish-speaking population.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
Author: Katja Hannß

Abstract

The present paper will be concerned with language contacts the extinct Pukina language had with Uru-Chipaya, Proto-Takanan, Mapudungun and possibly Kunza. These suggestions are based mainly on lexical, but in part also on structural evidence. I will suggest that Pukina was donor language for at least Uru-Chipaya and Proto-Takanan, while in the case of Mapudungun (and Kunza) the direction of borrowing is not clear. It is furthermore proposed that the time depth of contacts between Pukina and Proto-Takanan possibly dates back to around 500 A.D., although contacts in general may have spanned the first millennium A.D., reaching into colonial times.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia