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Edited by Pamela M. Jones, Barbara Wisch and Simon Ditchfield

This volume, edited by Pamela M. Jones, Barbara Wisch, and Simon Ditchfield, focuses on Rome from 1492-1692, an era of striking renewal: demographic, architectural, intellectual, and artistic. Rome’s most distinctive aspects--including its twin governments (civic and papal), unique role as the seat of global Catholicism, disproportionately male population, and status as artistic capital of Europe--are examined from numerous perspectives. This book of 30 chapters, intended for scholars and students across the academy, fills a noteworthy gap in the literature. It is the only multidisciplinary study of 16th- and 17th-century Rome that synthesizes and critiques past and recent scholarship while offering innovative analyses of a wide range of topics and identifying new avenues for research.

Contributors are: Renata Ago, Elisa Andretta, Katherine Aron-Beller, Lisa Beaven, Eleonora Canepari, Christopher Carlsmith, Patrizia Cavazzini, Elizabeth S. Cohen, Thomas V. Cohen, Jeffrey Collins, Simon Ditchfield, Anna Esposito, Federica Favino, Daniele V. Filippi, Irene Fosi, Kenneth Gouwens, Giuseppe Antonio Guazzelli, John M. Hunt, Pamela M. Jones, Carla Keyvanian, Margaret A. Kuntz, Stephanie C. Leone, Evelyn Lincoln, Jessica Maier, Laurie Nussdorfer, Toby Osborne, Miles Pattenden, Denis Ribouillault, Katherine W. Rinne, Minou Schraven, John Beldon Scott, Barbara Wisch, Arnold A. Witte.
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Das Auge der Geschichte

Der Aufstand der Niederlande und die Französischen Religionskriege im Spiegel der Bildberichte Franz Hogenbergs (ca. 1560–1610)

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Ramon Voges

english The visual reports by Frans Hogenberg shape until today the perception of the Dutch Revolt. In his book Das Auge der Geschichte Ramon Voges offers for the first time a comprehensive historical analysis of these prints. By examining the broadsheets not as reflections of past events, but as a form of complex visual historiography, he reflects the well-known depictions made at the Hogenberg workshop in Cologne from a new point of view. His study provides insights on how the visual reports tell the story of great European conflicts in the age of the Wars of Religion. The book does not only contribute to the history of historiography. It also reveals how Hogenberg’s prints have engaged in the conflicts on power, faith, and violence. deutsch Die Bildberichte Franz Hogenbergs prägen bis heute die Vorstellungen vom Aufstand der Niederlande. In seinem Buch Das Auge der Geschichte macht Ramon Voges die Druckgraphiken erstmals zum Gegenstand einer umfassenden historischen Untersuchung. Indem er die Blätter nicht als Abbilder eines früheren Geschehens, sondern als vielschichtige Form einer Geschichtsschreibung in Bildern analysiert, wirft er einen neuen Blick auf die vertrauten Darstellungen aus Hogenbergs Kölner Werkstatt. Seine Studie gibt darüber Aufschluss, wie die Bildberichte die Geschichte der europäischen Großkonflikte im Zeitalter der Religionskriege erzählen. Sie leistet damit nicht nur einen Beitrag zur Geschichte der Geschichtsschreibung. Sie legt auch offen, wie Hogenbergs Druckgraphiken in die Auseinandersetzungen um Glauben, Herrschaft und Gewalt eingegriffen haben.
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Beyond Chinoiserie

Artistic Exchange between China and the West during the Late Qing Dynasty (1796-1911)

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Edited by Petra ten-Doesschate Chu and Jennifer Milam

The complex interweaving of different Western visions of China had a profound impact on artistic exchange between China and the West during the nineteenth century. Beyond Chinoiserie addresses the complexity of this exchange. While the playful Western “vision of Cathay” formed in the previous century continued to thrive, a more realistic vision of China was increasingly formed through travel accounts, paintings, watercolors, prints, book illustrations, and photographs. Simultaneously, the new discipline of sinology led to a deepening of the understanding of Chinese cultural history. Leading and emerging scholars in the fields of art history, literary studies and material culture, have authored the ten essays in this book, which deal with artistic relations between China and the West at a time when Western powers’ attempts to extend a sphere of influence in China led to increasingly hostile political interactions.
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Kathleen G. Chapman

In Expressionism and Poster Design in Germany 1905-1925, Kathleen Chapman re-defines Expressionism by situating it in relation to the most common type of picture in public space during the Wilhelmine twentieth century, the commercial poster. Focusing equally on visual material and contemporaneous debates surrounding art, posters, and the image in general, this study reveals that conceptions of a “modern” image were characterized not so much by style or mode of production and distribution, but by a visual rhetoric designed to communicate more directly than words. As instances of such rhetoric, Expressionist art and posters emerge as equally significant examples of this modern image, demonstrating the interconnectedness of the aesthetic, the utilitarian, and the commercial in European modernism.
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Frederick A. de Armas

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Renaissance rediscoveries of the material culture of the ancients contrasted with their inability to recover antique paintings, since these were frail works and most often perished over time. It is thus that the Renaissance turned to the 35th book of Pliny’s Natural History to view that which no longer existed. Among the hundreds of works described by the Roman admiral and naturalist, works by Apelles are the most plentiful because his paintings are considered the epitome of Greek art. His name was constantly evoked throughout the Italian Renaissance as well as in imperial Spain. This essay focuses on an anecdote about him, as well as two of his paintings. I begin with the anecdote of the quibbling cobbler, which can be found in Italian and Flemish art and in numerous Spanish treatises. I then turn to one of Apelles’ most important works, the Venus Anadyomene, which was re-imagined by Botticelli, Macantonio Raimondi and Titian. Although no such canvases were painted in Spain, her figure graces the stage and is found in a detailed ekphrasis by Lope de Vega. Finally, I argue that traces of Apelles’ painting of Alexander with a Thunderbolt can be detected in the art and literature of Italy and Spain, from Titian’s Charles V at Mühlberg to Lope de Vega’s ekphrastic poem that praises Rubens’ equestrian portrait of Philip IV.

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William Eamon

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The Early Modern age may be described as the Age of the New. Renaissance peoples’ fascination with novelty had innumerable objects, none more alluring than the wonders of nature. Whether in the form of exotic plants and animals from the New World or the long-hidden “secrets of nature,” novelty was a singular feature of Renaissance science. This chapter describes the spaces, institutions, and personalities that shaped Spanish science in the Age of the New, showing that Spanish science differed from science in the rest of Europe in that scientific activity in Spain was driven by the needs of the Spanish empire. The most creative and original science in Early Modern Spain took place not in universities but in the institutions that the monarchy established to keep its vast empire running: the Casa de la Contratación, the Imperial College of Madrid, and the Council of the Indies. Spanish missionaries, the Jesuits in particular, also contributed to science, producing volumes of observations about New World nature and indigenous cultures. The science of comparative ethnology emerged from the Spanish imperial context.

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Beatriz de Alba-Koch

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Iberia’s imperial expansion during the Renaissance gave rise to the first global culture. Providing an overview of the Spanish Monarchy’s possessions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas in the early 17th century, this essay considers key issues such as the foundational role of the Reconquista, justifications of conquest, the Portuguese “trading-post” empire, and the Spanish system of viceroyalties and captaincies-general. The second part of the essay focuses on New Spain, where the imposition of Christianity or “spiritual conquest” was central to the creation of a mestizo or hybrid culture. The foundation of a New World empire, which was much more than the transplantation of European culture overseas, was shaped by utopian impulses, millenarianism, and humanism as well as by the acquisitiveness of the conquerors. Important aspects of this moment are the New Laws of 1542 and their foundation of a putatively dual society comprised of two republics, as well as urban design, open-air architecture, and tequitqui art. In the realm of knowledge transfer and production, early anthropological methodology, the creation of texts in Indigenous languages, the role of creole intellectuals in the fostering of “lettered cities,” and Indigenous resistance to colonialism are also discussed.

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Henry Kamen

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Spain in Early Modern times enjoyed, like other countries in Europe, levels of spiritual experience and practice that varied according to region, economy and social status. The summary here deals only with Christian belief and omits treatment of Islam or the Jewish faith. Thanks to a persistent romantic tradition perpetuated by travelers, religious belief has usually been stressed as a deeply ingrained feature of traditional Spain. However, despite the reputation that Spain enjoys of being a deeply religious country, this essay puts forth the polemical thesis that little evidence for it exists, and that the study of its Catholic past has been largely superficial.

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Edward Behrend-Martínez

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This essay examines some of the linkages between popular culture and how it supported the growth of the Early Modern state via the Spanish legal system. Like festivals, Spain’s courts provided the populace a way they could relate to and legitimize higher authorities. As early as the 15th century, Spanish popular culture had fully incorporated the vocabulary and mechanisms of litigation into everyday life and festivals. This essay examines the discursive institutions charged with finding or creating justice. Spain’s systems of courts and law connected people from many levels of society to the Early Modern Spanish state and to higher powers like the Church and even God. The public machinations of litigation processes broadly appealed to many segments of (and individuals in) society to buttress the foundations of social order and even Spain’s far-flung Empire. Popular culture, acting via litigation, legitimized the existing social hierarchy by creating much-desired social order.