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Andrea Pearson

In Gardens of Love and the Limits of Morality in Early Netherlandish Art, Andrea Pearson charts the moralization of human bodies in late medieval and early modern visual culture, through paintings by Jan van Eyck and Hieronymus Bosch, devotional prints and illustrated books, and the celebrated enclosed gardens of Mechelen among other works. Drawing on new archival evidence and innovative visual analysis to reframe familiar religious discourses, she demonstrates that depicted topographies advanced and sometimes resisted bodily critiques expressed in scripture, conduct literature, and even legislation. Governing many of these redemptive greenscapes were the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary, archetypes of purity whose spiritual authority was impossible to ignore, yet whose mysteries posed innumerable moral challenges. The study reveals that bodily status was the fundamental problem of human salvation, in which artists, patrons, and viewers alike had an interpretive stake.
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Edited by Pamela M. Jones, Barbara Wisch and Simon Ditchfield

This volume, edited by Pamela M. Jones, Barbara Wisch, and Simon Ditchfield, focuses on Rome from 1492-1692, an era of striking renewal: demographic, architectural, intellectual, and artistic. Rome’s most distinctive aspects--including its twin governments (civic and papal), unique role as the seat of global Catholicism, disproportionately male population, and status as artistic capital of Europe--are examined from numerous perspectives. This book of 30 chapters, intended for scholars and students across the academy, fills a noteworthy gap in the literature. It is the only multidisciplinary study of 16th- and 17th-century Rome that synthesizes and critiques past and recent scholarship while offering innovative analyses of a wide range of topics and identifying new avenues for research.

Contributors are: Renata Ago, Elisa Andretta, Katherine Aron-Beller, Lisa Beaven, Eleonora Canepari, Christopher Carlsmith, Patrizia Cavazzini, Elizabeth S. Cohen, Thomas V. Cohen, Jeffrey Collins, Simon Ditchfield, Anna Esposito, Federica Favino, Daniele V. Filippi, Irene Fosi, Kenneth Gouwens, Giuseppe Antonio Guazzelli, John M. Hunt, Pamela M. Jones, Carla Keyvanian, Margaret A. Kuntz, Stephanie C. Leone, Evelyn Lincoln, Jessica Maier, Laurie Nussdorfer, Toby Osborne, Miles Pattenden, Denis Ribouillault, Katherine W. Rinne, Minou Schraven, John Beldon Scott, Barbara Wisch, Arnold A. Witte.
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Edited by Laura Whatley

A Companion to Seals in the Middle Ages is a cross-disciplinary collection of fourteen essays on medieval sigillography. It is organized thematically, and it emphasizes important, often cutting-edge, methodologies for the study of medieval seals and sealing cultures.
As the chronological, temporal and geographic scope of the essays in the volume suggests, the study of the medieval seal—its manufacture, materiality, usage, iconography, inscription, and preservation—is a rich endeavour that demands collaboration across disciplines as well as between scholars working on material from different regions and periods. It is hoped that this collection will make the study of medieval seals more accessible and will stimulate students and scholars to employ and further develop these material and methodological approaches to seals.
Contributors are Adrian Ailes, Elka Cwiertnia, Paul Dryburgh, Emir O. Filipovi, Oliver Harris, Philippa Hoskin, Ashley Jones, Andreas Lehnertz, John McEwan, Elizabeth A. New, Jonathan Shea, Caroline Simonet, Angelina A. Volkoff, and Marek L. Wójcik.
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Edited by Konrad Eisenbichler

After the State and the Church, the most well organized membership system of medieval and early modern Europe was the confraternity. In cities, towns, and villages it would have been difficult for someone not to be a member of a confraternity, the recipient of its charity, or aware of its presence in the community. In A Companion to Medieval and Early Modern Confraternities, Konrad Eisenbichler brings together an international group of scholars to examine confraternities from various perspectives: their origins and development, their devotional practices, their charitable activities, and their contributions to literature, music, and art. The result is a picture of confraternities as important venues for the acquisition of spiritual riches, material wealth, and social capital. Contributors include: Alyssa Abraham, Davide Adamoli, Christopher F. Black, Dominika Burdzy , David D’Andrea, Konrad Eisenbichler, Anna Esposito, Federica Francesconi, Marina Gazzini, Jonathan Glixon, Colm Lennon, William R. Levin, Murdo J. MacLeod, Nerida Newbigin, Dylan Reid, Gervase Rosser, Nicholas Terpstra, Paul Trio, Anne-Laure Van Bruaene, Beata Wojciechowska, and Danilo Zardin.
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Das Auge der Geschichte

Der Aufstand der Niederlande und die Französischen Religionskriege im Spiegel der Bildberichte Franz Hogenbergs (ca. 1560–1610)

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Ramon Voges

english The visual reports by Frans Hogenberg shape until today the perception of the Dutch Revolt. In his book Das Auge der Geschichte Ramon Voges offers for the first time a comprehensive historical analysis of these prints. By examining the broadsheets not as reflections of past events, but as a form of complex visual historiography, he reflects the well-known depictions made at the Hogenberg workshop in Cologne from a new point of view. His study provides insights on how the visual reports tell the story of great European conflicts in the age of the Wars of Religion. The book does not only contribute to the history of historiography. It also reveals how Hogenberg’s prints have engaged in the conflicts on power, faith, and violence. deutsch Die Bildberichte Franz Hogenbergs prägen bis heute die Vorstellungen vom Aufstand der Niederlande. In seinem Buch Das Auge der Geschichte macht Ramon Voges die Druckgraphiken erstmals zum Gegenstand einer umfassenden historischen Untersuchung. Indem er die Blätter nicht als Abbilder eines früheren Geschehens, sondern als vielschichtige Form einer Geschichtsschreibung in Bildern analysiert, wirft er einen neuen Blick auf die vertrauten Darstellungen aus Hogenbergs Kölner Werkstatt. Seine Studie gibt darüber Aufschluss, wie die Bildberichte die Geschichte der europäischen Großkonflikte im Zeitalter der Religionskriege erzählen. Sie leistet damit nicht nur einen Beitrag zur Geschichte der Geschichtsschreibung. Sie legt auch offen, wie Hogenbergs Druckgraphiken in die Auseinandersetzungen um Glauben, Herrschaft und Gewalt eingegriffen haben.
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Frederick A. de Armas

Abstract

Renaissance rediscoveries of the material culture of the ancients contrasted with their inability to recover antique paintings, since these were frail works and most often perished over time. It is thus that the Renaissance turned to the 35th book of Pliny’s Natural History to view that which no longer existed. Among the hundreds of works described by the Roman admiral and naturalist, works by Apelles are the most plentiful because his paintings are considered the epitome of Greek art. His name was constantly evoked throughout the Italian Renaissance as well as in imperial Spain. This essay focuses on an anecdote about him, as well as two of his paintings. I begin with the anecdote of the quibbling cobbler, which can be found in Italian and Flemish art and in numerous Spanish treatises. I then turn to one of Apelles’ most important works, the Venus Anadyomene, which was re-imagined by Botticelli, Macantonio Raimondi and Titian. Although no such canvases were painted in Spain, her figure graces the stage and is found in a detailed ekphrasis by Lope de Vega. Finally, I argue that traces of Apelles’ painting of Alexander with a Thunderbolt can be detected in the art and literature of Italy and Spain, from Titian’s Charles V at Mühlberg to Lope de Vega’s ekphrastic poem that praises Rubens’ equestrian portrait of Philip IV.

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William Eamon

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The Early Modern age may be described as the Age of the New. Renaissance peoples’ fascination with novelty had innumerable objects, none more alluring than the wonders of nature. Whether in the form of exotic plants and animals from the New World or the long-hidden “secrets of nature,” novelty was a singular feature of Renaissance science. This chapter describes the spaces, institutions, and personalities that shaped Spanish science in the Age of the New, showing that Spanish science differed from science in the rest of Europe in that scientific activity in Spain was driven by the needs of the Spanish empire. The most creative and original science in Early Modern Spain took place not in universities but in the institutions that the monarchy established to keep its vast empire running: the Casa de la Contratación, the Imperial College of Madrid, and the Council of the Indies. Spanish missionaries, the Jesuits in particular, also contributed to science, producing volumes of observations about New World nature and indigenous cultures. The science of comparative ethnology emerged from the Spanish imperial context.

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Beatriz de Alba-Koch

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Iberia’s imperial expansion during the Renaissance gave rise to the first global culture. Providing an overview of the Spanish Monarchy’s possessions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas in the early 17th century, this essay considers key issues such as the foundational role of the Reconquista, justifications of conquest, the Portuguese “trading-post” empire, and the Spanish system of viceroyalties and captaincies-general. The second part of the essay focuses on New Spain, where the imposition of Christianity or “spiritual conquest” was central to the creation of a mestizo or hybrid culture. The foundation of a New World empire, which was much more than the transplantation of European culture overseas, was shaped by utopian impulses, millenarianism, and humanism as well as by the acquisitiveness of the conquerors. Important aspects of this moment are the New Laws of 1542 and their foundation of a putatively dual society comprised of two republics, as well as urban design, open-air architecture, and tequitqui art. In the realm of knowledge transfer and production, early anthropological methodology, the creation of texts in Indigenous languages, the role of creole intellectuals in the fostering of “lettered cities,” and Indigenous resistance to colonialism are also discussed.

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Henry Kamen

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Spain in Early Modern times enjoyed, like other countries in Europe, levels of spiritual experience and practice that varied according to region, economy and social status. The summary here deals only with Christian belief and omits treatment of Islam or the Jewish faith. Thanks to a persistent romantic tradition perpetuated by travelers, religious belief has usually been stressed as a deeply ingrained feature of traditional Spain. However, despite the reputation that Spain enjoys of being a deeply religious country, this essay puts forth the polemical thesis that little evidence for it exists, and that the study of its Catholic past has been largely superficial.