This volume includes 14 articles translated from the leading academic history journal in China,
Historical Studies of Contemporary China (Dangdai Zhongguo shi yanjiu). It offers a rare window for the English speaking world to learn how scholars in China have understood and interpreted central issues pertaining to women and family from the founding of the PRC to the reform era. Chapters cover a wide range of topics, from women’s liberation, women’s movement and women’s education, to the impact of marriage laws and marriage reform, and changing practices of conjugal love, sexuality, family life and family planning. The volume invites further comparative inquiries into the gendered nature of the socialist state and the meanings of socialist feminism in the global context.
In recent decades a prolific amount of research has been conducted into the topic of students’ relationships with supervising professors as key to doctoral experiences and success. Across different education systems, positive relationships between doctoral students and their advisors have been strongly associated with socialization into their departments and disciplines, as well as overall satisfaction with doctoral programs. While faculty-student relationship has been widely studied as one of the most important factors affecting student satisfaction and attrition, little is known about how the choice of advisor and how advisor-student relationships are related to stress. Data was collected by administrating a survey of students enrolled in doctoral programs from a public, research-intensive university in the Midwest of the United States and a public, research-oriented institution in South Korea. The findings indicate that US students were generally more positive about the advisor-advisee relationship than Korean students and both Korean and US doctoral students’ concerns were largely related to post-graduation options.
The quest to become research universities of international repute has led flagship universities in East and Southeast Asia to develop a new focus on attracting international doctoral students. This paper aims to understand Chinese doctoral students’ mobility in the immediate region and their education to work perceptions. The study draws from a sample of 301 doctoral students from China who were studying at five universities in Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Analysis on students’ decision making and after-study pathways highlights the regional exchange in related areas. We argue that this regional mobility of doctoral students, characterized as the second education circuit, is facilitated by a higher education migration infrastructure with three interactively weaved dimensions: commercial, social, and regulatory. The research findings suggest the growing importance of Asia as a regional second circuit of doctoral training for students from China.
This introductory paper explains the background of the special issue Doctoral Education and Beyond and provides overviews of the selected eight articles. Six of the eight articles address policy-related topics such as career choice, international mobility, and time-to-degree, and two articles explore theory related topics, especially socialization theory for doctoral students. These articles are based on empirically collected data. Five articles are based on the GRN survey, and three articles are based on national survey data and international survey data collected by each research team. Although some findings in these articles resemble those from studies conducted in the West, mostly in the US, but similar findings do not necessarily mean doctoral students in East Asia have similar learning experiences to their colleagues in the West.
This study aimed to explore determinants that predict doctoral students’ concern about completing their degree in time with a case from a research-focused university in Korea. This study used survey data of 499 doctoral students enrolled in a case university and conducted both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results from this study indicate that the level of concern for delay in time-to-degree appeared significantly higher for STEM doctoral students and their level of concern is more affected by external environmental factors such as emphasis on research productivity and job market prospects rather than their personal and program characteristics. On the other hand, non-STEM doctoral students were more likely to be influenced by advisor characteristics such as academic rank and quality of supervision. Lastly, this study found that the role of scholarship appeared differently among the discipline. Based from these findings, various policy implications were suggested to improve effectiveness of doctoral training.
The purpose of this study is to analyze doctoral students’ career plans and research productivity, as well as key factors affecting both, based on relevant findings from a 2017 national survey of doctoral students at Japanese universities. The main findings of this study are as follows. First, Japanese doctoral students tend to have diverse post-graduation career plans. They not only consider becoming academics but also expect to be hired in industry and business. This expectation is particularly strong among students from engineering, while more of those studying humanities and social sciences want to become academics. Second, the survey revealed that Japanese doctoral students’ host universities, age, gender, and their marital status, had no significant influence on their research productivity.
The aim of this study is to explore whether local and non-local doctoral students in Hong Kong perceive their competency, supervisory style and institutional environment differently, and how these perceptions influence their stress levels. Two research questions are identified: Are there differences in the perceived competency and learning experiences of local and non-local doctoral students in Hong Kong? What are the factors resulting in doctoral students’ stress, and how do these differ with students’ origins? This study used survey data from the Comparative Study of Doctoral Education in Asian Flagship Universities. An analysis of 482 responses was conducted and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regressions were applied. The results show that non-local students (international students and those from the mainland) had higher levels of confidence in their competency and were more satisfied with their supervisors and institutional environments than local students. The regression analysis showed that factors influencing stress were different for local and non-local students. For example, perceived competency and an authoritarian supervisory style led to stress in Hong Kong local students, while they were less stressed in a supportive institutional environment. Perceived competency and a research- and resource-oriented culture led to stress in doctoral students from the mainland, but this was reduced when they felt that their relationship with their supervisor was more professional. International students were stressed due to the dissertation requirements and collegial supervisory style, but they felt less stressed if the culture was more autonomous. This study reveals implications for how the demands and expectations of local and non-local doctoral students should be considered differently, and it highlights the importance of encouraging mutually engaging learning experiences across students’ origins and making their learning communities meaningful.
This study aims to develop a theoretical perspective on postdoctoral experiences as professional socialization, and to empirically analyze whether postdoctoral experiences are associated with professional socialization such as deepened knowledge and skills, sense of belonging and academic identity. For this study, we used the data of the Academic Profession in the Knowledge Society (APIKS) survey. The results show that postdoctoral experiences are associated with research performance, their identity as a researcher, and their sense of belonging to their academic discipline; however, postdoctoral training is not associated with their sense of belonging to their affiliated institution. These findings imply that professional socialization during postdoctoral training is closely related to academic identity and their disciplinary affiliation as well as scholarly performance. This study proposes to develop and redesign doctoral education and postdoctoral training in the continuous process of academic and professional socialization.
The study aims to explore how Taiwan doctoral education in knowledge society meets the change of labor market, and how doctoral students deal with the socialization and professional training during their study, as well as influence their perspectives on career plan and job choices. That is, assuming that socialization and professional training have relationships and influences on doctoral students’ career decision. The research questions are as follows: (1) Will the related factors of implementing socialization in doctoral education predict the choices of different career paths? and (2) What factors will affect doctoral students’ perspectives on future job market (academia, public sector, private sector)? 2,000 questionnaires, snowball and purposely sampling, were sent to current registered doctoral student and 914 questionnaires were returned, excluding 214 invalid ones. The amount number of valid respondents is 700. SPSS Window 22.0 version was adopted as the statistical analyzing tool. The descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression were main methods for data analysis. There are 4 models, based on findings, for doctoral students’ intentions of purchasing jobs according to the findings: academia orientated, being employed in the government or public research institute, working in the private sector, and self-confident with career and job market.
The purpose of this study is to analyze Chinese doctoral students’ career expectations and determinants or factors influencing their career plans based on main findings from the national survey of doctoral students in 2017. Main findings include: firstly, the Chinese case indicates that becoming academics is still attractive to most doctoral graduates; secondly, female doctoral students are more likely to choose to work in universities than male doctoral students; thirdly, the social background of doctoral students did not have a significant impact on their academic orientation scores, but doctoral students with richer family culture capital (parents with college degrees) are even more reluctant to choose to work in the universities; finally, significant disciplinary differences and the correlation between their socialization experience and their academic orientation could be confirmed.