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Edited by Jeremy Gunn, Jeroen Temperman and Malcolm D. Evans

As the tensions involving religion and society increase, the European Court of Human Rights and the Freedom of Religion or Belief is the first systematic analysis of the first twenty-five years of European Court's religion jurisprudence. The Court is one of the most significant institutions confronting the interactions among states, religious groups, minorities, and dissenters. In the 25 years since its first religion case, Kokkinakis v. Greece, the Court has inserted itself squarely into the international human rights debate regarding the freedom of religion or belief. The authors demonstrate the positive contributions and the significant flaws of the Court's jurisprudence involving religion, society, and secularism.
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The Future of EU Criminal Justice Policy and Practice

Legal and Criminological Perspectives

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Edited by Jannemieke Ouwerkerk, Jacob Öberg, Judit Altena, Samuli Miettinen and Annika Suominen

EU criminal justice is a fast developing and challenging area of EU law and policy that requires scholars from different disciplines to join forces. This book is a first attempt to establish such synergies. Coming from different angles, the authors deal with questions in the area of EU substantive criminal law, such as when criminalisation of conduct is an appropriate choice; how the process of (de)criminalisation could be advanced; what the role of evidence could be in this regard; and what consequences criminalisation decisions at EU level have for national legal orders. The book concludes with a demonstration of how similar issues arise in the field of procedural criminal law.
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Francisco Pascual-Vives

In Consensus-Based Interpretation of Regional Human Rights Treaties Francisco Pascual-Vives examines the central role played by the notion of consensus in the case law of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. As many other international courts and tribunals do, both regional human rights courts resort to this concept while undertaking an evolutive interpretation of the Rome Convention and the Pact of San José, respectively. The role exerted by the notion of consensus in this framework can be used not only to understand the evolving character of the rights and freedoms recognized by these international treaties, but also to reaffirm the international nature of these regional human rights courts.
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Edited by Charlene M. Eska

In A Raven’s Battle-cry: The Limits of Judgment in the Medieval Irish Legal Tract Anfuigell Charlene M. Eska presents a critical edition and translation of the previously unpublished medieval Irish legal tract Anfuigell. Although the Old Irish text itself is fragmentary, the copious accompanying commentaries provide a wealth of legal, historical, and linguistic information not found elsewhere in the medieval Irish legal corpus. Anfuigell contains a wide range of topics relating to the role of the judge in deciding difficult cases, including kingship, raiding, poets, shipwreck, marriage, fosterage, divorce, and contracts relating to land and livestock.
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Christian H. Kälin

In Ius Doni in International Law and EU Law, Dr. Christian H. Kälin establishes the concept of ius doni in the contemporary legal and political theorising of citizenship. Providing a comprehensive analysis of the subject, it discusses the legal and political concepts of citizenship. It also introduces a new term for what is already an increasingly common and accepted practice of granting citizenship on the basis of substantial contributions to the State. Consisting of two main parts – law and practice – the monograph analyses the ius doni concept in both international law and EU law, further tests its application in practice and establishes best practices among states. Finally, the book discusses the conceptual and practical implications for citizenship.
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Social Rights of Children in Europe

A Case Law Study on Selected Rights

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Katharina Häusler

The Convention on the Rights of the Child has changed the paradigm of how (human rights) law looks at children: from “objects” of protection to full rights-holders of all human rights. Consequently, social rights are not voluntary welfare services but an expression of the dignity and rights of the child. In Social Rights of Children in Europe Katharina Häusler provides a thorough analysis of how these basic social rights are interpreted by the three major human rights bodies on the level of the Council of Europe and the European Union. It thus offers not only an excellent picture of the main lines of interpretation but also of the major gaps and challenges for the realisation of children’s social rights in Europe.
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Segregation of Roma Children in Education

Addressing Structural Discrimination through the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Racial Equality Directive 2000/43/EC

Sina Van den Bogaert

In Segregation of Roma Children in Education, Sina Van den Bogaert examines, from the perspective of public international law, how the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Council of Europe) and the Racial Equality Directive 2000/43/EC (European Union) have contributed towards desegregation of Roma children in education in Europe. The fields of application ratione personae and ratione materiae of both instruments are discussed, as well as their "added value". Sina Van den Bogaert demonstrates that the Framework Convention and the Racial Equality Directive are complementary instruments and formulates useful suggestions for a more effective monitoring and implementation of both instruments in the field of Roma education. This book is the first and only comprehensive scholarly treatment in public international law of the still widespread phenomenon of segregation of Roma children in education.
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Aistė Mickonytė

In this book Mickonytė examines the compliance of the European anti-cartel enforcement procedure with the presumption of innocence under Article 6(2) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The author maintains that the pursuit of manifestly severe punishment with insistence of the European Commission on administrative-level procedural safeguards is inconsistent with the robust standards of protection under the Convention. Arguing that EU anti-cartel procedure involves a criminal, this work considers this procedure in light of the core elements of the presumption of innocence such as the burden of proof and the principle of fault. The author zeroes in on the de facto automatic liability of parental companies for offences committed by their subsidiaries.
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Edited by Vladislava Stoyanova and Eleni Karageorgiou

Understanding the realities of protection in a Europe that had failed to manage the crisis in asylum that unfolded in 2015 and 2016 requires a comprehension of how law shapes and distorts refugee protection practices in frontline states. In this collection Vladislava Stoyanova and Eleni Karageorgiou provide an essential cartography of the state of asylum during the crisis. The volume captures four dynamics: the absorption of EU norms in Central and South Eastern Europe; the reaction in this region to the massive movement of asylum seekers in 2015 and 2016; the initiation of normative developments in the area of asylum during and beyond the crisis by the countries in this region; and the question of solidarity.
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The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

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Jessica Schultz

Under what circumstances can a state refuse refugee status to a person whose risk of persecution exists in only part of her country of origin? This book is the first monograph to examine the treaty basis and criteria for the ‘internal protection alternative’ (IPA), an exception to refugee status increasingly invoked by state parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Through a critical analysis of the relationship between refugee law and related fields, Schultz finds that the legal scope for IPA practice is narrower than is commonly claimed. Since persons subject to an IPA analysis have a well-founded fear of persecution within their countries of origin, any limit on their right to refugee status must involve a careful balancing of the impact of continued displacement against the state's interest in preserving its restricted protection resources. She argues that the doctrine of implied limits in human rights law can provide analytic structure to the IPA concept and reduce the risk of overly broad application.