The Tattvārthādhigamabhāṣya, which is an early commentary on the Tattvārthādhigama attributed to Umāsvāti, contains several passages in verse. The inclusion of these verses has not been studied before, even though they are relevant for the discussion of the relationship between the Tattvārthādhigama and the bhāṣya. This article provides an analysis and translation of these verses, including the introductory verses and the colophon that usually accompany this text. Although some scholars regard the bhāṣya as an auto-commentary, the outcomes of this analysis indicate that the bhāṣya was written by a different author. Further, this study shows that some of the verses in the bhāṣya are derived from other Jaina works in Sanskrit that are no longer extant. This suggests that the Tattvārthādhigama was not the only Jaina philosophical text in Sanskrit at the time of the final redaction of the bhāṣya.
Indian Buddhist literary sources contain both systematic and casual rejections of, broadly speaking, the caste system and caste discrimination. However, they also provide ample evidence for, possibly subconscious, discriminatory attitudes toward outcastes, prototypically caṇḍālas. The rhetoric found in Indian Buddhist literature regarding caṇḍālas is examined in this paper.
A 250-concept list was established for the purposes of an ongoing lexically-based study of Sino-Tibetan. This paper supplies the Old Chinese version of the list, in the Old Chinese reconstruction of Baxter and Sagart 2014. Chinese words attested in pre-Han times were selected based on their meaning as given in major lexica such as the Hànyǔ Dà Zìdiǎn. At times more than one OC item was found to match a concept in the list without it being clear which of the terms was the oldest. In such cases all the candidates were retained. As a result, the Old Chinese version of the list contains 301 words.
By reviewing a recent quantitative study of rhyme patterns in Mandarin Chinese, this study shows how data handling and data analysis in the study of rhyme patterns can be improved. Suggestions for improvement include (a) a consistent annotation of rhyme data, which is exhaustive and facilitates data reuse, and (b) emphasizes the importance of automated approaches for exploratory data analysis, which can help to analyze rhyme data in an improved way, prior to applying statistical frameworks for hypothesis testing.
Rhyming plays an important role in the study of Chinese phonology. Traditionally it is believed that there are two types of rhyming between finals: free rhyming and mixed rhyming. Finals which rhyme with each other freely constitute a rhyme group, while the rhyming between finals from different rhyme groups can only be mixed rhyming. By analyzing the rhyming in the modern Beijing dialect using a statistical method, we find a third type: semi-free rhyming, which is close to free rhyming. As a whole, these two types can be called pan-free rhyming. Thus, the definition of rhyme group must be revised as the maximum unit of pan-free rhyming, because free rhyming is no longer a transitive relation, i.e., when both final pairs A–B and B–C are free rhyming, A–C may be semi-free rhyming. As for the Beijing dialect, our statistical test results approve that non-érhuà finals are divided into 15 rhyme groups, and subsequent phonological analyses show that words in the same rhyme group share the same nucleus and coda. Besides finals, tones also function apparently in rhyming, but in a different way from the three types mentioned above. As more Chinese dialects are studied, the typology of rhyming in Chinese dialects can be analyzed, creating a useful reference for the study of Chinese historical phonology.
Cet article se consacre à l’ analyse du morphème polyfonctionnel 搁 GE en dialecte de Shenyang appartenant au mandarin du Nord-Est. 搁 GE peut fonctionner comme un verbe, une préposition, un adverbe et un subordonnant et il possède cinq réalisations possibles : [kɤ44], [kɤ24], [kɤ213], [kɑu44], [kɑu24]. L’ emploi privilégié de 搁 GE est toutefois celui de la préposition polysémique « à ». En fonction du sens des morphèmes qu’ il met en relation, 搁 GE « à » présente, au niveau sémantique, des valeurs spatiales (localisation des objets ou des activités, trajet, provenance), temporelle, instrumentale ou encore la valeur d’ accompagnement et la valeur de conformité.