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Vincent Eltschinger

Abstract

The present paper focuses on Aśvaghoṣa’s treatment of King Śuddhodana and Kapilavāstu, the latter’s kingdom, in the Buddhacarita (BC) and the Saundarananda (SNa). As I shall try to demonstrate, the poet’s depiction of Śuddhodana is strongly reminiscent of, and, I think, very likely based on, Brahmanical accounts of the rājadharma (BC 9.48) and the dharmarāja (BC 1.75) as they can be found, first and foremost, in the Mahābhārata (MBh). As for his description of the Śākya kingdom, it is obviously meant to be evocative of the “golden age” or, conversely, of its lack of any characteristic of the kaliyuga, which again points to Aśvaghoṣa’s likely acquaintance with epic descriptions of the kaliyuga and/or the yugānta as they can be found, e.g., in the so-called Mārkaṇḍeya section of the MBh (esp. 3.186 and 188).

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Jonathan SMITH

Abstract

There is still little agreement regarding the most important evidence for Old Chinese (OC) onset complexity—Middle Chinese (MC) mixed-onset phonetic series. This study explores a remarkable feature of this evidence first noticed by Sagart (1999). Within series such as those involving mixture of MC labials and velars with l-, x- with m-, velars with hj- (/y/), and d- with y- (/j/), MC onset and so-called A/B (syllable) Type fail to vary independently of one another. An unrecognized but inescapable implication of this association is that these MC onset results and A/B Type require a unified explanation in early Chinese. In light of the phonetic series material, I demonstrate that pre-OC Type involved two contrasting onset configurations. A number of phonetic specifications are conceivable; here, based on ideas of Ferlus (1998), I show how the data can be explained in terms of an early contrast between minor syllable forms **CǝR- (“Type A”) and tautosyllabic clusters **CR- (“Type B”) where R is a sonorant.

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Buddhist and Śaiva Interactions in the Kali Age

The Śivadharmaśāstra as a Source of the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra

Peter C. Bisschop

Abstract

In a much-discussed passage of the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra it is taught that Avalokiteśvara produced Maheśvara from his forehead. Maheśvara is introduced as a representative of the degenerative Kali age. In this connection, the Kāraṇḍavyūha quotes a doctrinal verse about the worship of the liṅga, which for a long time has been mistakenly attributed to ‘the Skandapurāṇa’, but whose source can now be identified in the Śivadharmaśāstra. After a comparative discussion of this verse in both texts, the article considers the possible broader implications of this quotation, in particular in relation to the question of the origin of the six-syllabled mantra oṃ maṇipadme hūṃ and its Śaiva counterpart oṃ namaḥ śivāya. The article concludes with some observations on distinctive features that characterise Śaiva versus Vaiṣṇava interactions with Buddhism.

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Jianhong ZENG, Christoph ANDERL and Ann HEIRMAN

Abstract

This paper aims to explain the formation of the and kě yǐ constructions in archaic Chinese. We analyze a number of examples from the pre-Qin era to refute previous hypotheses that the construction is formed by adding to a notional passive, fronting the object in an active sentence including , or solely by reanalysis. Subsequently, a verb-moving-backward hypothesis is proposed: is used in the underlying structure ‘V-O’ + to comment on an already known proposition ‘V-O’, then V is moved to the end to avoid the top-heavy problem. Similarly, this hypothesis also accounts for the kě yǐ construction: in the underlying structure ‘-X-V-Y’ + is to comment on the serial verb structure ‘-X-V-Y’, which is interchangeable with ‘X--V-Y’ forming ‘X--V-Y’ + where ‘-V-Y’ is moved after to avoid the top-heavy problem. Moreover, the “verb moving backward” hypothesis provides new insights into the formation process of similar constructions (e.g., nán 难 ‘be difficult to V,’ 易 ‘be easy to V,’ 足 ‘be sufficient to V’ constructions) in ancient Chinese, as well as the study of tough constructions.

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In Memoriam

Viviane Alleton (1930–2018)

Alain PEYRAUBE

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Jiyoung CHOI

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the lexical meaning of so-called inchoative states (INSs) in Korean that do not fit into Vendler (1967)’s aspectual classification, in that they show properties of both atelic (states) and telic (change-of-state) predicates. Building on Bar-el (2005), this paper proposes that INSs in Korean are semantically complex predicates describing a sequence of two events, one that is a change-of-state an achievement would describe, immediately followed by a second that is an eventuality a typical state would describe. This paper also provides an analysis of INSs accounting for their temporal properties.

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An Opaque Pun

Tentative Notes on Kāśyapaparivarta § 68

Ruixuan Chen

Abstract

Various interpretations of Kāśyapaparivarta § 68 have been attempted in the Yogācāra-Vijñānavāda tradition. This passage, which consists in a simile likening a magician devoured by his own creation to a monk involved in meditation practice, appears prima facie absurd, insofar as the similarity between the tenor and the vehicle is not readily apparent. This article mainly consists of two parts: The first part examines the received interpretations of the simile and reconstructs their interrelationship from a historical perspective. The second part explores the literary dimension of the simile and argues that its ostensible absurdity is rooted in a pun which is visible only in Middle Indo-Aryan and seems to serve no purpose. Coming to terms with the opaque and pointless pun, this essay is aimed at a new interpretation of Kāśyapaparivarta § 68 and, it is hoped, a deeper understanding of the literary playfulness inherent in the making of the Kāśyapaparivarta as a so-called early Mahāyāna sūtra against the backdrop of the Sanskritization of Buddhist sūtra literature.

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O. v. Hinüber

Abstract

From the very beginning the Buddhist order was dependent on donations, which were attractive for laypeople because of the merit thus accumulated. Therefore, names of donors were carefully documented in both, inscriptions, and, as soon as manuscripts are extant, also in colophons. Sometimes joint donations were made by families, whose members are named, under lucky circumstances even with an indication of their mutual relation such as parents, brothers, sisters etc. as participating in the merit made. This allows occasionally glimpses of the composition of average families and estimating their approximate seize in the ancient Indian cultural area. Hardly anything is known otherwise about this facet of Indian social history.

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The development of QIE 且 in Medieval Chinese

From temporal adverb to polite imperative marker

Yezi Mu

Abstract

In Medieval Chinese, a new function of QIE as a marker of polite imperative started to appear, and its use gradually increased in frequency until the late Old Mandarin era. This paper proposes a possible path for the development of this function of QIE in Medieval Chinese, and suggests that it might have evolved from its use for transient situations with hortative modality. Moreover, contact with Indic languages via the translation of Buddhist texts in the Medieval Chinese era also seems to have facilitated the development of QIE from a temporal adverb to a marker of polite imperative.