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Alexander Vovin

Abstract

This article revisits the traditional comparisons for K(r)adai and Austronesian ‘hand’, ‘eye’, and ‘bird’. In the case of ‘hand’ it attempts to improve the comparison by offering an unorthodox solution for Proto-K(r)adai reconstruction that, in my opinion, should be *lima, virtually identical to proto-Austronesian. It also provides additional evidence for reconstructing ‘eye’ and ‘bird’ as disyllabic words in K(r)adai, showing that these two were also very close to (with minor differences) to proto-Austronesian. Although these facts alone cannot be used as ultimate proof of K(r)adai and Austronesian genetic relationship, I believe that they constitute a further step in refining the arguments in this direction.

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Linguistic evidence for a closer relationship between Lhokpu and Dhimal

Including some remarks on the Dhimalish subgroup

Selin Grollmann and Pascal Gerber

Abstract

Lhokpu is a hitherto undescribed and unclassified Trans-Himalayan language spoken by some 2,500 speakers in southwestern Bhutan. Fieldwork in 2015 now enables linguistic research on the language, including accounts on its phylogenetic position within the language family. This paper presents morphological, lexical, and phonological evidence for a closer phylogenetic relationship between Lhokpu and Dhimal (southeastern Nepal). Dhimal is conventionally grouped together with Toto under “Dhimalish.” We argue in this paper that the similarities between Lhokpu and Dhimal are equally profound and numerous, and that Lhokpu, Dhimal, and Toto are three closely related languages within the Trans-Himalayan family.

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Baiyao Zuo

Résumé

Les marques négatives redondantes apparaissent dans des structures propositionnelles et des expressions adjectivales et adverbiales en chinois. Bien qu’ elles soient étudiées depuis longtemps, les différences de leurs natures n’ ont pas été indiquées par les recherches antérieures. Cet article a analysé les productions des structures propositionnelles, comme chàdiǎn méi … (差点没 … « s’ en falloir de peu que NEG »), et des expressions adjectivales ou adverbiales hǎo bù (好不 « très NEG ») + Adj et búyào tài (不要太 « NEG très ») + Adj. A travers cette analyse, trois mécanismes différents de production, à savoir l’ intégration conceptuelle des constructions, l’ ironie (la négation métaconceptuelle) et la négation métalinguistique, ont été trouvés pour expliquer les différentes natures des marques négatives redondantes.

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The development of QIE 且 in Medieval Chinese

From temporal adverb to polite imperative marker

Yezi Mu

Abstract

In Medieval Chinese, a new function of QIE as a marker of polite imperative started to appear, and its use gradually increased in frequency until the late Old Mandarin era. This paper proposes a possible path for the development of this function of QIE in Medieval Chinese, and suggests that it might have evolved from its use for transient situations with hortative modality. Moreover, contact with Indic languages via the translation of Buddhist texts in the Medieval Chinese era also seems to have facilitated the development of QIE from a temporal adverb to a marker of polite imperative.

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Duccio Lelli

Abstract

This article presents a critical edition, translation and commentary of a tr̥ca found in book 19 of the Paippalādasaṃhitā of the Atharvaveda. The hymn, which consists in a spell against wrinkles, pronounced by a woman who tries to ward off the signs of aging with the help of the goddess Indrāṇī, is remarkable both in term of content and from a linguistic point of view: it is the only hymn directed against wrinkles in the Vedic corpus and the role of the goddess Indrāṇī in the ritual confirms and broadens her sphere of influence related to female charm. Besides providing the earliest attestation of the word for ‘wrinkle’ váli-, the hymn contains two hapaxes, previously unattested forms of the perfect subjunctive and features of women’s speech. The article also includes a stylistic analysis that aims at illuminating the structure and poetics of the hymn.

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The Human Character Types in Ancient India

A Study in the Transmission of Knowledge between Genres in Early Sanskrit Literature

Kenneth Zysk

Abstract

This paper is a study of the transmission and assimilation of ideas and motifs in different types of Sanskrit literature in ancient India. I examine the classification of both male and female character types in three different Sanskrit literary genres: Jyotiḥśāstra, Āyurveda and Nāṭyaśāstra. The results of the study indicate that the list of male character types offered in the early Jyotiḥśāstra treatise of Garga (Gārgīyajyotiṣa) dating from the beginning of the Common Era contributed in part to the formulations in Āyurveda and formed the basis of the version in the Nāṭyaśāstra. Early āyurvedic treatises expanded the list and organised the male character types according to the Sāṃkhyan guṇa-theory, and the Nāṭyaśāstra further increased the animal similes of Garga, changed the gender emphasis from male to female, and used Kāmaśāstra as the genre for introducting the catalogue of female character types into dramaturgy.