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Editors: David Rood and John Boyle
Robert L. Rankin was a seminal figure in late 20th and early 21st centuries in the field of Siouan linguistics. His knowledge, like the papers he produced, was voluminous. We have gathered here a representation of his work that spans over thirty years. The papers presented here focus on both the languages Rankin studied in depth (Quapaw, Kansa, Biloxi, Ofo, and Tutelo) and comparative historical work on the Siouan language family in general. While many of the papers included have been previously published, one third of them have never before been made public including a grammatical sketch and dictionary of Ofo and his final paper on the place of Mandan in the larger Siouan family.
Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia presents the results of in-depth studies of grammars, vocabularies and religious texts, dating from the sixteenth – nineteenth century. The researches involve twenty (extinct) indigenous Mesoamerican and South American languages: Matlatzinca, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec (Mexico); K’iche, Kaqchikel (Guatemala); Amage, Aymara, Cholón, Huarpe, Kunza, Mochica, Mapudungun, Proto-Tacanan, Pukina, Quechua, Uru-Chipaya (Peru); Tehuelche (Patagonia); (Tupi-)Guarani (Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay).
The results of the studies include: a) a digital model of a good, conveniently arranged vocabulary, applicable to all indigenous Amerindian languages; b) disclosure of intertextual relationships, language contacts, circulation of knowledge; c) insights in grammatical structures; d) phone analyses; e) transcriptions, so that the texts remain accessible for further research. f) the architecture of grammars; g) conceptual evolutions and innovations in grammaticography.

Abstract

This study hopes to show the difficulties which the full identification of some of the versions of two of the doctrinal works attributed to friar Bernardino de Sahagún have entailed. We particularly make reference to the liturgical sources and to the Catholic Canons which determined the composition of the Evangeliario and the Sermonario in the process of conversion. We include also a representational sample of both works, in Mexican Language, along with their Spanish translation, wherein the discursive and linguistic resources employed have all been considered, in order to render more effective the evangelization process of the indigenous population.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
Author: Otto Zwartjes

Abstract

It is a common practice that the so-called particles belong in fact to a plethora of categories and it has been often demonstrated that missionary grammarians and lexicographers are straightforward in their parts of speech system, and anything which falls outside these models was usually gathered in a final section devoted to the particles. In fact, the history of particles goes back to Antiquity. Basalenque decided to break with the traditional model and compiled an independent work devoted to the particles, between his grammar and his dictionary. In this paper, Zwartjes demonstrates how “particles” are defined and classified, and which decisions Basalenque made in order to include them in the Tratado, and omitting them in the grammars and dictionaries. The hitherto unknown properties of Matlatzinca motivated Basalenque to develop innovating descriptive approaches.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia

Abstract

A volume of Andean indigenous linguistic materials which is kept in the British Library includes a Quechua and an Amage confession manual, written by the same hand and most probably dating from the eighteenth century, but possibly copied from earlier texts.

Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz explains the context and manuscript history, makes an analysis of the most salient linguistic features of the Chinchaysuyu Quechua confession manual and presents its transcription. The Quechua text includes Central Peruvian Quechua lexical and morphological features, as opposed to what was the commonly used ‘general language’, a Southern Quechua variety. It also shows a tendency towards a media lengua (mixed language): the structure is entirely Quechua, but almost half of the words are relexified in Spanish. It reflects colonial power structures, but at the same time a certain intent at communicative pragmatism. It is probably the earliest documented example of a nascent variety of a mixed language in the Andes, and due to its inconsistent and unsystematic variations it is not unlike Spanglish.

Astrid Alexander-Bakkerus provides a commented transcription and translation of the first Amage confession manual of two included in the manuscript volume. The Amage confession manual seems to be the earliest known text in the Amuesha (or Yanesha’) language, which belongs to the Arawakan language family, and is spoken to the east of the central Andes. Due to the lack of early colonial documentation of Amage, the understanding and analysis of the confession manual has to remain partly hypothetical. With respect to contact phenomena, the text uses a number of loanwords from Quechua and Spanish. Some of the Quechua words may have been borrowed via Christian texts where the Quechua words had already been re-semanticised; others may be older, such as the numbers from ‘six’ to ‘nine’; a few words reflect the economic character of the relationship of the Amages and the Spanish-speaking population.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
Author: Katja Hannß

Abstract

The present paper will be concerned with language contacts the extinct Pukina language had with Uru-Chipaya, Proto-Takanan, Mapudungun and possibly Kunza. These suggestions are based mainly on lexical, but in part also on structural evidence. I will suggest that Pukina was donor language for at least Uru-Chipaya and Proto-Takanan, while in the case of Mapudungun (and Kunza) the direction of borrowing is not clear. It is furthermore proposed that the time depth of contacts between Pukina and Proto-Takanan possibly dates back to around 500 A.D., although contacts in general may have spanned the first millennium A.D., reaching into colonial times.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia

Abstract

The Italian navigator Antonio de Pigafetta (1480–1540) compiled a vocabulary containing ninety Patagonian terms (Tehuelche) in San Julian’s bay in 1520. In the same bay but in 1780 explorer Antonio de Viedma (1737–1809) wrote a vocabulary of 185 terms. In another expedition nine years later, in 1789, Alessandro Malaspina (1754–1809) compiled two brief vocabularies on the Patagonian language and in 1791 Lieutenant Juan José de Elizalde (?-?) wrote a longer one. The analysis of these vocabularies will include (a) context of compilation, (b) extension, (c) semantic fields and (d) transcription, distribution and organization of lexemes. We will also compare these 19th-century vocabularies with those of Pigafetta’s (1520), Pineda’s (1789) and Elizalde’s (1791).

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia
Author: Wolf Dietrich

Abstract

German Jesuit missionaries were sent to missions in Amazonia in the 1740s and 1750s. These missions, one on the lower Madeira river, the other one on the lower Xingu, were situated in a region where Língua Geral Amazônica, derived from the indigenous Tupinambá language, was the lingua franca between surrounding Indians, settlers and missionaries. The German missionaries began to compile Portuguese-Língua Geral dictionaries using as a pattern the well-known Vocabulário na Lingua Brazílica (1622). In the center of this contribution is Father Rochus Hunderpfundt, presumably the author of his anonymous dictionary, called Prosodia da Lingoa. The comparison of this dictionary with two other existing dictionaries shows that those probably were written, a bit later, by German Jesuit missionaries, too, using the Prosodia as a model. All three dictionaries show the linguistic evolution from the first Lingua Geral dictionary (1622) through the middle of the 18th century.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia

Abstract

The Puquina language, which was spoken in the South-Central Andes until the early nineteenth century, is documented in just one missionary text published in 1607. This has made it difficult to describe the language with much precision. In this chapter, we present a new picture of the Puquina kinship system, based on a close analysis of a passage regarding the sixth commandment (dealing with sexual relations among family members). The terms that emerge from this analysis are distinguished by gender of ego, and are suggestive of a bifurcate merging kinship system, similar to the Quechuan and Aymaran systems. In addition to its descriptive contribution, this analysis may help develop an ethnohistorical picture of Puquina speakers in pre-colonial Andean society.

In: Missionary Linguistic Studies from Mesoamerica to Patagonia