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Secondary Content

The Semantics and Pragmatics of Side Issues

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Edited by Daniel Gutzmann and Katharina Turgay

In addition to expressing some main content, utterances often convey secondary content, which is content that is not their “main point”, but which rather provides side or background information, is less prominent than the main content, and shows distinctive behavior with respect to its role in discourse structure and which discourse moves it licenses. This volume collects original research papers on the semantics and pragmatics of secondary content. By covering a broad variety of linguistic phenomena that convey secondary content – including expressives, various particles, adverbials, pronouns, quotations, and dogwhistle language – the contributions show that secondary content is pervasive throughout different aspects of natural language and providing new insight into the nature of secondary content through new semantic and pragmatic analyses.
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Edited by Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen and Irma Taavitsainen

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Edited by Manuela E. B. Giolfo and Kees Versteegh

This volume contains sixteen contributions from the fourth conference on the Foundations of Arabic linguistics (Genova, 2016), all having to do with the development of linguistic theory in the Arabic grammatical tradition, starting from Sībawayhi's Kitāb (end of the 8th century C.E.) and its continuing evolution in later grammarians up till the 14th century C.E. The scope of this volume includes the links between grammar and other disciplines, such as lexicography and logic, and the reception of Arabic grammar in the Persian and Malay linguistic tradition.
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Srinagar Burushaski

A Descriptive and Comparative Account with Analyzed Texts

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Sadaf Munshi

In Srinagar Burushaski: A Descriptive and Comparative Account with Analyzed Texts Sadaf Munshi offers the structural description of a lesser-known regional variety of Burushaski spoken in Srinagar, the summer capital of the Indian-administered state of Jammu & Kashmir. The description includes a comprehensive and comparative account of the structural features of Srinagar Burushaski in terms of phonology, morphology, lexicon and syntax. The grammar is supported by an extensive digital corpus housed at the University of North Texas Digital Library. Using contemporary spoken language samples from Srinagar, Nagar, Hunza and Yasin varieties of Burushaski as well as data from the available literature, Munshi provides a thorough understanding of the historical development of Srinagar Burushaski, complementing the existing studies on Burushaski dialectology.
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Sound and Grammar

A Neo-Sapirian Theory of Language

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Susan Schmerling

Sound and Grammar: A Neo-Sapirian Theory of Language by Susan F. Schmerling offers an original overall linguistic theory based on the work of the early American linguist Edward Sapir, supplemented with ideas from the philosopher-logicians Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz and Richard Montague and the linguist Elisabeth Selkirk. The theory yields an improved understanding of interactions among different aspects of linguistic structure, resolving notorious issues directly inherited by current theory from (post-) Bloomfieldian linguistics. In the theory presented here, syntax is a filter on a phonological algebra, not a linguistic level; linguistic expressions are phonological structures, and syntax is semantically relevant relations among phonological structures. The book shows how Neo-Sapirian grammar sheds new light on syntax-phonology interactions in English, German, French, and Spanish.
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Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics

A Study of Variation and Change in the Modal Systems of World Englishes

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Beke Hansen

In Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics, Beke Hansen analyses variation and change in the modal systems of three second-language varieties of English in Asia by taking a sociolinguistic approach to corpus data. Her study focuses on the modal and semi-modal verbs of strong obligation and necessity in Hong Kong English, Indian English, and Singapore English based on the relevant ICE component corpora. She adopts a typologically-informed perspective on variation in World Englishes by comparing the structures of the speakers’ first languages with the structures of the emergent varieties in the expression of epistemic modality. Beyond this, she analyses language change by constructing apparent-time scenarios to compensate for the lack of diachronic corpora in World Englishes.
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Beata Sheyhatovitch

In The distinctive terminology in Šarḥ al-Kāfiya by Raḍī l-Dīn al-ʾAstarābāḏī Beata Sheyhatovitch presents a structured and systematic study of a seminal treatise in the medieval Arabic linguistic tradition. The treatise’s author, al-ʾAstarābāḏī (d. circa 1289), is widely considered the most brilliant grammarian of the later classical period. The author's analysis of his terminology reveals the extent of his originality, and of the influence that other Islamic sciences (logic, jurisprudence, theology) had on his writings.

The book is innovative in its comprehensiveness and its unique approach, which uses texts from various medieval Islamic disciplines in clarifying the terminology. It provides scholars and ordinary readers with tools for a deeper understanding of al-ʾAstarābāḏī as well as other medieval Arab grammarians.
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Beata Sheyhatovitch

Abstract

This chapter surveys a series of seemingly synonymous terms referring to the form-meaning relation: maʿnā ‘meaning’ (that refers in the vast majority of cases to a meaning which is relatively abstract), dalāla/madlūl ‘signification/ signified [meaning]’ and their derivatives (that are often used to speak of a mental representation of a concrete object signified by linguistic elements, and also in distinguishing among different types of signification), musammā ‘the named one’ (used to refer to an entity denoted by a proper noun or to a concrete referent of a word), maḍmūn ‘content’ (that mostly refers to the content of a clause or a clause-like element, or the content of a predicate in a sentence/clause). The examples presented in this chapter illustrate the important role of semantics in al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s writing.

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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This chapter analyzes two ostensibly close terms that refer to factors/elements which are secondary and/or transient in comparison to others: ṭaraʾān ‘pouncing’, used in the juridical literature as early as in the 4/10th century, and ʿurūḍ ‘accidentality’, a logical term. The chapter clarifies the differences between the two terms and surveys the main contexts in which they appear.

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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This chapter is dedicated to al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s theory of waḍʿ ‘coinage’. It explores the sources of this theory, terminology related to it and its applications in linguistic discussions. This theory allows to explain most linguistic phenomena by the coiner’s intention, but al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s sensitivity to mismatches between the coiner’s intention and actual usage is also highlighted. In addition to signification by coinage (which is how most linguistic elements are created and given meaning), attention is given to al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s notions of signification “by nature” (bi-l-ṭabʿi/ṭabʿan) and signification “by means of reason” (ʿaqlan).