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Beáta Wagner-Nagy

With this descriptive grammar of Nganasan Beáta Wagner-Nagy presents a comprehensive description of the highly endangered Samoyedic language, spoken only by a small number of individuals on Siberia’s Taimyr Peninsula. Based on corpus data from the Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus as well as field work the grammar follows a traditional structure. Contents range from a description of phonetic features and phonological processes over word classes, morphological features to syntactic and semantic properties. The grammar highlights morphophonological alternations as well as the pragmatic organization of Nganasan. A discussion of the core vocabulary completes the account in addition to two sample texts.
The grammar reflects significant typological aspects thus serving as a reasonable basis for further comparison in Uralic studies.
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Donald Harper (夏德安)

Bamboo-slip manuscripts from Zhoujiatai tomb 30, Hubei (burial dated ca. 209 b.c.e.), provide important evidence of ancient Chinese occult manuscripts belonging to a man of modest status. One manuscript, identified as a rishu “day book” by the modern editors of the Zhoujiatai manuscripts, treats of hemerology and astrology and is the focus of this study. The bamboo slips of a calendar for years corresponding to 211–210 b.c.e. can be associated with the rishu and may have formed one manuscript unit. The contents of the rishu include two large-size diagrams related to hemerological and astro-calendrical systems. The first diagram involves calculations based on the position of the handle of the Dipper constellation and the second diagram is notable for reference to one of the years (211 b.c.e.) of the associated calendar. A third diagram, for which the title rong lirirong calendar day [divination]” is written on the manuscript, has a slightly different form in a second occurrence on the manuscript. Both forms of the diagram show thirty lines arranged in a vertical column, corresponding to the thirty days of the ideal month, with some lines enclosed in boxes. Days of the month are counted in the sequence of lines on the diagram in order to determine the lucky and unlucky aspects of a given day. A related hemerological system is attested in a manuscript from Mawangdui tomb 3, Hunan (burial dated 168 b.c.e.), and in medieval occult manuscripts from Dunhuang.

湖北省周家臺30號墓簡(約公元前209年)提供了關於古代中國一名低級官吏所擁有的數術簡的寶貴資料。本文主要研究其中由整理者认定为《日書》的簡文及其涉及的擇日、星象等內容。同墓出土的暦譜(公元前211–210年)與《日書》相關,可能本來屬於同一卷簡冊。《日書》包括兩幅大圖,一個與擇日有關,一個與星象曆法體系有關。第一圖講基於北斗七星斗柄指向的算法,第二圖因爲涉及到暦譜記載公元前211年的內容而受到矚目。另外第三幅圖簡文記述其名曰“戎磿日”,存在兩個稍微不同的版本。兩個版本的圖都是由縱向排列的三十條橫綫構成,代表一个月的理想天数三十,並和周圍的綫條組成方框。按照圖中橫綫的順序判斷每個月中相應的那一天是否吉利。與此相關的擇日法也在湖南馬王堆3號墓(約公元前168年)與中古時期敦煌的數術文獻中出現。

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Daniel Patrick Morgan (墨子涵) and Karine Chemla (林力娜)

Refining our previous study in Jianbo 簡帛 12 (2016), this article examines the back-and-forth between scribal hands in the Suan shu shu 筭數書 from Zhangjiashan 張家山 M247 (sealed ≥186 b.c.e.). Introducing an improved methodology, we establish a link between one of the Suan shu shu’s scriptors and four other manuscripts in the same tomb, offering a hand-informed reading of the former to hypothesize what this means.

以《簡帛》第12輯(2016 年)的原作爲基礎,本文對張家山247號漢墓《筭數書》寫手輪流交替書寫的現象進行分析。在介紹我們對原有方法論的改進後,本文把《筭數書》的兩位寫手之一與隨葬的四種文本串聯,再由字跡、文意對讀解釋其意味。

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Edward L. Shaughnessy (夏含夷)

This essay, the first chapter in the author’s Xifang Hanxue chutu wenxian yanjiu gaiyao 西方漢學出土文獻研究概要 (Essentials of Western Sinology’s Research on Unearthed Documents), provides a survey of Western Sinology’s research on Chinese paleography from the time of the first such study (1881) through 2015. The survey includes especially the following topics: general discussions of Chinese paleography and/or unearthed documents, the origins of Chinese writing and its social functions, the nature of Chinese writing, methodological studies, and reference works, but does not cover studies of ancient Chinese grammar or phonology.

摘要這篇文章是作者著《西方漢學出土文獻研究概要》第一章,就 1881 年到 2015年間西方漢學對中國出土文獻與古文字研究成果作概括的論述,分成下列題目:中國出土文獻與古文字學綜論、中國文字的起源及其社會作用、中國文字的性質、古文字學方法論、古文字學參考書,但是不包括相關的古代漢語語法研究和古代漢語音韻學。

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Kiyoshi Miyake (宮宅潔)

From the late fourth century b.c.e. onward, the state of Qin launched several long-term military expeditions. If, however, the army had consisted of “alternating garrisons” (gengshu 更戍) serving a maximum enlistment of one year, such expeditions could not have been carried out. The author thereby argues that the term “surplus garrisons” (rongshu 冗戍) seen in the Liye Qin manuscripts designates long-term conscripts, with which Qin managed to sustain its long-term military operations.

公元前四世紀末期以後,秦國屢次進行長時段軍事遠征。如果兵士是以最長爲一年的任期而輪換的“更戍”,就不能完成這樣的軍事作戰。筆者推測,里耶秦簡所見“冗戍”是長期從軍的應徵兵。利用冗戍的兵力,秦國得以維持了長期軍事活動。

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Li Tianhong (李天虹)

Scholars have previously suggested that the characters 才 and in a variety of published Warring States texts may be interpreted as fractions: 才 has been read as zi 錙, meaning “one fourth”; has been read as chui 錘, meaning “one third.” The Yancang Chu slips, excavated in 2010 but not yet published, contain a number of similar uses of these graphs that more fully substantiate these readings as fractions. How the graphs originally came to be used as fractions awaits further research.

已公佈戰國文字資料中散見用作數詞的“才”字和“”字,有學者認爲“才”應當讀爲“錙”,表示四分之一;“”應當讀爲“錘”,表示三分之一。2010年出土、尚未公布的嚴倉楚簡中,多見相同用法的“才”和“”,爲此説提供了比較豐富的例證。錙、錘何以有這種用法,尚有待進一步探討。