Various Authors & Editors
Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2017
This Part 2018-5 of the Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam will contain 49 new articles, reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship in the fields of Islamic Studies.
The Teaching of Yusuf al-Qaradawi
By studying the coherence of Qaradawi's Wasati theory of ijtihad and the consistency of its application in his legal opinions (fatwas), Shaham argues that Qaradawi, by means of eclecticism and synthesis, conducts a bold dialogue with the Islamic juristic heritage and brings it to bear on modern developments, in particular the institutional framework of the nation-state.
Materials for a Dictionary of the Mediaeval Translations from Greek into Arabic. Volume 1 (Alif) أ to ي Second, Revised Edition
A Greek and Arabic Lexicon is the first systematic attempt to present in an analytical and rationalized way our knowledge of the vocabulary of the translations. It is based on the glossaries included in text editions, both published and unpublished, and on other materials gleaned from various sources. The work is published in fascicules of 128 pages of lexical entries plus indexes of the Greek-Arabic correspondences, of Greek proper names and transliterated words, of variant Greek and Arabic passages, and of the Greek authors cited in the context passages. From the second fascicule onwards the indexes are cumulative.
A Greek and Arabic Lexicon is an indispensable reference tool for the study and understanding of Arabic scientific and philosophical language and literature. It facilitates the preparation of future editions of Arabic texts translated directly from the Greek, as well as of works originally composed in Arabic but based on the translations. It contributes to our knowledge of the vocabulary and syntax of Classical and Middle Arabic, of the thought and methods of the translators and of the nature of the translation activity into Arabic methods of the translators and of the nature of the translation activity into Arabic as a whole, and of the way a new vocabulary may develop in an existing language.
Moreover, the Greek-Arabic glossary in general and the index of variant Greek passages in particular will assist in future editions of the Greek text of the works translated into Arabic. These provide information, in a way that can be used by classical scholars who do not know Arabic, on the readings of the manuscripts which were used by the Arab translators and which antedate by more than two centuries the Greek manuscripts actually extant. The work further contributes to our knowledge of the vocabulary of Classical and Middle Greek and of the reception and reading of classical Greek works in late antiquity and pre-Photian Byzantine literature.
Asad Q. Ahmed
This article argues that Ḥanafī uṣūlīs of the later phases of the postclassical period understood uṣūl to be universal propositions that were underdetermined with respect to their evidentiary bases. Though the purpose of such propositions was to confer actionable certainty to particular legal effects, the later tradition imagined the main charge of uṣūl al-fiqh on a meta-theoretic level, i.e., to determine how such propositions could themselves be suitably grounded. In casting the discourse within the framework of naturalized technical methods and distinctions from fields of logic and philosophy, the tradition generally granted the relational and systemic validity of each proposition in terms of the grounding it received from another underdetermined proposition. This second-order perspective of the tradition reveals that uṣūl were systemically and relationally valid, but individually underdetermined. Thus the application of the attribute of relational validity to them and to the effects for which they are serviceable is apt.
Asad Q. Ahmed and Robert Gleave
Ibn Taymiyya on Tawātur as the Ultimate Guarantor of Human Cognition
Carl Sharif El-Tobgui
This article presents and analyzes Ibn Taymiyya’s views on tawātur in uṣūl al-fiqh and as the basis of a generalized epistemological system. In legal theory, Ibn Taymiyya expands the umbrella of what is “functionally equivalent to the mutawātir,” extending epistemic certainty to a wide range of religious knowledge. More originally, he expands tawātur beyond the realm of transmitted knowledge altogether, making it the final guarantor of all human cognition. Tawātur in this theory reveals the nature of the uncorrupted human intellect, underwriting the integrity even of the basic axioms of reason and the native intuitions of the sound human fiṭra.