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Series:

Boyka Stefanova

This chapter revisits varying trends of Euroskepticism in Central and Eastern Europe (cee), as the scope of public reluctance to uncritically accept the benefits of eu membership in these countries remains poorly understood.1 The chapter examines key aspects of cee Euroskepticism as a component of the institutional history of the 2004 eu enlargement. The organizing perspective is that of the unexpected emergence and intensity of Euroskepticism in the countries of the eu’s eastward enlargement. By combining a variety of utilitarian, ideational, and attitudinal predispositions, significantly shaped by the national context, this evolving variety of Euroskepticism represents a valid measure of the public reaction to the purpose and policies of European integration.

cee Euroskepticism is reflected in ambiguous and unsettled levels of public trust in the eu against the background of general dissatisfaction with the workings of national democracy. The cee publics have become increasingly skeptical of their representation as citizens whose voice “counts” in the eu. They perceive the eu as less relevant to their personal situation although it represents well the interests of the Member States. Such contradictory dynamics suggests that the conventional measures of Euroskepticism as a pan-European phenomenon need to be re-examined by exploring trends of continuity and change in public support for the eu in cee with a special focus on political variables.

Series:

Amelia Hadfield and Robert Summerby-Murray

This chapter examines the conceptual assumptions that underlie Erasmus: the eu’s most successful student mobility scheme. Originally designed to inspire a new “geography of European youth”, Erasmus provides ambiguous outcomes in terms of generating a deepened sense of European identity. A European youth demographic clearly exists, but its ability to support European integration through specific dynamics of identity, association, and skill generation have been undermined internally by a lack of clarity regarding the current purpose of Erasmus, and externally by the upheavals of enlargement and the Eurozone crisis.

Series:

Olga Khrushcheva

In October 2012, the European Union (eu) adopted Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. The Directive proposes a common framework of measures to promote energy efficiency and to ensure that the eu meets its 20% target on energy efficiency by 2020. Prior to the liberalization of markets, the years of the communist influence shaped the economic structure of the Central and Eastern European (cee) states, and the logic of planned economy did not promote energy efficiency. As a result, the energy intensity of the post-communist states was roughly 2.5 times of that of Western Europe. On the road to eu membership, the cee states demonstrated significant improvement in energy efficiency even prior to the 2012 Directive. Beyond cee, Russia had comparable problems in improving energy efficiency, and Russia’s economy is still rather wasteful. This chapter thus aims to investigate if there is a potential for strengthening the cooperation between Russia and the eu on energy efficiency, and what role the cee Member States may play in eu-Russia energy efficiency cooperation.

Series:

Olga Khrushcheva

In October 2012, the European Union (eu) adopted Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. The Directive proposes a common framework of measures to promote energy efficiency and to ensure that the eu meets its 20% target on energy efficiency by 2020. Prior to the liberalization of markets, the years of the communist influence shaped the economic structure of the Central and Eastern European (cee) states, and the logic of planned economy did not promote energy efficiency. As a result, the energy intensity of the post-communist states was roughly 2.5 times of that of Western Europe. On the road to eu membership, the cee states demonstrated significant improvement in energy efficiency even prior to the 2012 Directive. Beyond cee, Russia had comparable problems in improving energy efficiency, and Russia’s economy is still rather wasteful. This chapter thus aims to investigate if there is a potential for strengthening the cooperation between Russia and the eu on energy efficiency, and what role the cee Member States may play in eu-Russia energy efficiency cooperation.

Series:

Sandra Fernandes

Since 2004, the strategic dimension of the eu’s relationship with Moscow has been enhanced. Countries of the former Soviet sphere brought new political dimensions alongside the Union’s growing assertion as a global actor. eu post-enlargement ambitions also corresponded to a greater strategic orientation towards its neighborhood, materialized in its European Neighborhood Policy (enp) and a new mode of relationship with Moscow. Academic literature has been focusing mainly on eu’s internal adjustments concerning the impact of the Eastern enlargement on its approaches towards Russia, surrounded by the competing views on how to deal with Moscow. This chapter aims instead at focusing on specific policy outcomes, as compared to the initial stated goals advanced by Brussels at the time of enlargement (i.e. up to circa 2008). We argue that already existing tensions and issues have been sharpened in eu-Russia relations but that main priorities have been pursued, such as trade relations. We also argue that the empowerment of both actors is an additional variable that explains the impact of enlargement on a more difficult relationship with Russia. Considering a key eu document from 2004, we analyze the effects of enlargement on eu policies towards Russia and what (and how) core policies have been implemented in the last ten years prior to the Ukrainian crisis.

Series:

Marianna Poberezhskaya

This chapter looks at how renewable energy discourse in Russian media has been influenced by the prolonged and intricate eu-Russia energy relationship that was substantially intensified after the eu’s Eastern enlargement of 2004. Through the analysis of news articles published by the Internet news agency ria Novosti over 10 years (2004–2013), it has been concluded that in publications referring to renewable energy sources (res), the frame of “Europeanization” occupies one third of the studied material. Whenever the eu enters the discussion, renewable energy sources are discussed as a solution in combating environmental degradation, a cause for cooperation, or another way to provide energy security. It is argued that, among other factors, the eu plays a positive role in the popularization of res in Russian media discourse.

Series:

Marianna Poberezhskaya

This chapter looks at how renewable energy discourse in Russian media has been influenced by the prolonged and intricate eu-Russia energy relationship that was substantially intensified after the eu’s Eastern enlargement of 2004. Through the analysis of news articles published by the Internet news agency ria Novosti over 10 years (2004–2013), it has been concluded that in publications referring to renewable energy sources (res), the frame of “Europeanization” occupies one third of the studied material. Whenever the eu enters the discussion, renewable energy sources are discussed as a solution in combating environmental degradation, a cause for cooperation, or another way to provide energy security. It is argued that, among other factors, the eu plays a positive role in the popularization of res in Russian media discourse.

Series:

Tamas Dezso Ziegler and Balázs Horváthy

abstract

Since the political transition of Hungary in the late 1980s, the law of the European Union has been the primary external influence on the modernization of domestic legislation. This chapter aims to illustrate that Hungary, as a passive and receptive actor, implemented all components of eu law which were prerequisites for eu membership. This has resulted in an intense convergence in rules and values of the domestic and eu legal order until its accession to the eu in 2004. After accession, however, Hungary started to move from a constructive to confrontational Member State, which has led to a substantial divergence between the laws of Hungary and eu law. This chapter analyzes these processes and attempts to identify the possible consequences of this alteration in the Hungarian stance to the adoption of rules, values, and regulatory models originating from eu law. It will be demonstrated with case studies ranging from recent Hungarian economic legislation to the constitutional reform, illustrating how this new role of Hungary negatively affects the adaptability of Hungarian legal order and leads to canceling the convergence to the European law.

Series:

Simon Lightfoot and Balázs Szent-Iványi

It is now more than ten years since the states in Central and Eastern Europe (cee) moved from recipients of development aid to donors of development aid. The chapter shows that in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia there has been an increase in aid levels and the creation of legal and administrative structures for development policy. The states under study have clear priority areas for their bilateral aid, focusing on the Eastern Neighborhood and areas of strategic interest. Overall, the chapter argues that a combination of low eu priority, soft law, and lack of political drivers in the accession states created weak foundations for development policy that have had a long lasting legacy. International recognition of the status of being a donor via membership of the Development Assistance Committee (dac) for some states does little to mask the weaknesses, and more work needs to be done to provide the policy with firm political foundations.