Extending the EU Emissions Trading System to Imported Goods and Services
The book offers a comprehensive analysis of the WTO cases that might have parallels to the unresolved case of BAs. It provides interpretations of vague legal terms of the applicable WTO agreements and guidance on how to balance between environmentally related and trade liberalising WTO rules. Typified constellations of BAs pave the way for a reform of the EU ETS Directive.
The inclusion of legal findings in the context of economic theory and climate science allows for a meaningful discussion of the functioning of the BA, relevant markets and competitive effects of specific design proposals. The proposed framework also takes into account the prevention of extra-jurisdictional effects.
Edited by Gudmundur Alfredsson and Timo Koivurova
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues with regard to the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.
The papers in this volume are based on presentations at the ninth symposium in Akureyri in October 2016.
Analysis of Sustainable Development and the Practice of Good Governance
Edited by Wei Zhang
Instead of excessive emphasis on the economic perspective, this book focuses on how to realize the right to sustainable development by resolution of conflicts among economy, environment and society.
Integrating the value analysis into the empirical analysis method, this book expands the scope of the United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development and strengthens its practical function, extracts Chinese experiences, lessons from South Asia, Local knowledge in South Africa and practice model in Peru on the implementation of the right to development, and put forward the idea of building a version of human rights criterion in the South.
Another Road to China's Sustainable Development
Michael Faure and Jing Liu
We argue that climate law has specific features—including scientific complexity, a strongly transboundary nature, and long-term effects—that make it more challenging to study than other more traditional domains of environmental law. As a consequence, an interdisciplinary perspective may be needed even more for climate law than for the traditional study of environmental law. Climate law is to some extent underestimated by scientists, who should realize that for effective mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to climate change, an optimal design and enforcement through climate law is necessary. Climate law can be expected to become more important with the implementation of the Paris Agreement, and for that reason climate lawyers should receive a more prominent position in the international policy arena of climate change.
The EU ETS is the cornerstone of the European Union’s climate policy. The EU ETS will play a decisive role in the European Union plan to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement. In November 2017, following more than two years of negotiations, EU member states and the European Parliament reached a final agreement on the revision of the EU ETS for the period 2021–2030. The final agreement struck an important, ambitious balance on a number of measures designed to ensure that the EU ETS achieves its legislative aims of promoting emission reductions in a cost-effective manner. The negotiations also provide a number of policy lessons for future negotiations relating to the role of EU institutions and the rules for free allocation which will be important for the EU ETS to meet its legislative objectives.1
In his essay on the thesis of my book, Alexander Zahar objects to my characterization of customary international law as one of the sources of the international law on climate change and, in particular, to my conclusion about the relevance of the no-harm principle. I disagree. In the first part of his essay, Zahar’s analysis of the no-harm principle is limited to arguments by analogy, but a valid international legal argument can be based on deduction from axiomatic premises of the international legal order. In the second part of his essay, Zahar claims that the UNFCCC regime excludes the application of the no-harm principle when, in reality, the UNFCCC regime really seeks to facilitate the implementation of general international law.