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Sergey Yu. Marochkin

This book addresses the increased role and standing of international law in the Russian legal system through analysis of judicial practice since the adoption of the Russian Constitution in 1993. The issue of interaction and hierarchy between international and domestic law within the Russian Federation is studied, combining theoretical, legal and institutional elements.
Sergey Marochkin explores how methods for incorporating and implementing international law (or reasons for failing to do so) have changed over time, influenced by internal and global policy. The final sections of the book are the most illustrative, examining how 'the rule of law’ remains subordinate to ‘the rule of politics’, both at the domestic and global level.
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The February Revolution, Petrograd, 1917

The End of the Tsarist Regime and the Birth of Dual Power

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Tsuyoshi Hasegawa

The February Revolution, Petrograd, 1917 is the most comprehensive book on the epic uprising that toppled the tsarist monarchy and ushered in the next stage of the Russian Revolution. Hasegawa presents in detail the intense drama of the nine days of the revolution, including the workers' strike, soldiers' revolt, the scrambling of revolutionary party activists to control the revolution, and the liberals’ conspiracy to force Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate. Based on his previous work, published in 1981, the author has revised, enlarged, and reinterpreted the complexity of the February Revolution, resulting in a major and timely reassessment on the occasion of its centennial.
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Kathryn Mengerink, David Roche and Greta Swanson

Co-management is an effective tool through which Alaska Native communities can pursue self-governance and self-determination in regards to marine mammal resources. In the Arctic, co-management typically aims to promote environmental conservation, sustainable resource use, and equitable sharing of resource-related benefits and responsibilities. This paper traces a variety of co-management regimes and other international management frameworks, and posits that co-management of subsistence resources is not just a legal issue or a governance issue, but rather, it is an issue of human rights and environmental justice. It concludes that co-management regimes are most successful when they integrate frameworks for shared responsibility, and build long-term relationships on mutual trust and strong legal agreements.

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Harry Badera

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Rachael Lorna Johnstone

The United Kingdom has a longstanding interest in the Arctic and has recently begun to develop a set of guiding principles for its engagement in the region. Although the UK has a great deal to offer in terms of scientific research and expertise, it is missing an opportunity to engage more fully with issues of importance to the Arctic region.

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Małgorzata Śmieszek, Adam Stępień and Paula Kankaanpää

The scientific assessments of the Arctic Council (AC) have been widely regarded as the most effective products of the AC. Yet, so far comparatively little scholarly attention has been given to this primary area of the Council’s work. This paper examines the most recent assessment work within the Arctic Council. In order to do this, we build on the literature on global environmental assessments to analyze whether this work exhibits design features and is carried out in a way that enhances the potential for AC assessments to be effective. We understand the effectiveness of assessments to influence decision and policy-making in the Arctic Council itself, but we also look beyond its structures. This paper focuses on four case studies: Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), Arctic Human Development Report-II (ADHR-II), Arctic Resilience Report/Arctic Resilience Assessment (ARR/ARA) and Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic (AACA). Whereas detailed examination of such influence is at this point not possible due to either very short time from their completion (ABA, ADHR-II) or the fact that the projects are still ongoing (ARA, AACA), the analysis of those assessments through the lens of a series of their design features provides us with some guidance in relation to their expected effectiveness in bridging science with decision-making in the AC and beyond. The article finds that whereas different processes exhibit different individual characteristics, all the studied assessments rank from relatively high to very high in terms of how their design may affect their salience, credibility and legitimacy. However, their actual policy influence will depend first and foremost on the political will of those ordering the assessments and wielding decision-making power in the Arctic Council.

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Editors The Yearbook of Polar Law

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Matti Niemivuo and Lotta Viikari

This article provides an overview of the legal regulation involved in building – and dismantling – the Nordic welfare state in Finland. Within this context this article details how legislative reforms have been reflected in the development of Northern Finland, as well as the effects on the Sami population and a comparison between Nordic countries.

The Nordic welfare state was implemented in Finland primarily through parliamentary legislation. Human and fundamental rights played no role in the process of building the welfare state. The beginning of the 1990s marked the end of what had been massive build-up of the public sector. Over the last 20 years or so we have seen cutbacks in municipal services such as schools, healthcare centres, and social services.

The future of municipal government in Finland looks very different than it did when the welfare state was being created. We may well be facing a bleak future with weaker municipalities, fewer public services, less state funding for municipalities, less manoeuvring space in relation to the state, and more privatisations. Wise structural reforms might be the way ahead if we want to create functional regional and local governance and thus to guarantee the future of the Nordic welfare state in Finland.