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Edited by Martin Dabrowski, Judith Wolf and Karlies Abmeier

Umweltpolitik im Bereich von Energie, Boden und Wachstum gehört zu den Kernfragen nationaler und internationaler Politik. Wie können globale, gerechte und nachhaltige Lösungen aussehen?
In diesem Sammelband der Reihe „Sozialethik konkret“ wird die vielschichtige Problematik einer globalen und gerechten Umweltpolitik aufgegriffen und aus der Sicht unterschiedlicher wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen diskutiert. Im Diskurs der verschiedenen Wissenschaften sollen eine ausgewogene Beurteilung der Thematik erreicht, Vorschläge zur konkreten Gestaltung von Reformprozessen und konkrete Ausgestaltungen der Umweltpolitik erarbeitet und offene und weiterführende Fragestellungen identifiziert werden.

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Tineidae II

(Myrmecozelinae, Perissomasticinae, Tineinae, Hieroxestinae, Teichobiinae and Stathmopolitinae)

Series:

Reinhard Gaedike

This second volume on Tineidae treats the subfamilies Myrmecozelinae, Perissomasticinae, Tineinae, Hieroxestinae, Teichobiinae and Stathmopolitinae of Europe. It presents information for the identification of 103 species of tineid moths. Information is added on the life history and distribution of each species. The distribution data are summarized in a table showing the records for each European country. 23 scientific names are synonymized and two taxa previously regarded as synonyms have proved to represent valid species.
Additional records are listed for species treated in volume 7, as well as two taxa which were overlooked before and nine new species are listed.
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Irelis Bignotte-Giró, Ansel Fong G. and Germán M. López-Iborra

Abstract

Acoustic segregation is a way to reduce competition and allows for species coexistence within anuran communities. Thus, separation in at least one acoustic niche dimension is expected, which also contributes to achieving effective communication among frogs. Here we studied an assemblage of five terrestrial egg-laying anuran species, all in the genus Eleutherodactylus, in a montane rainforest in eastern Cuba. Our aim was to determine if partitioning exists between these species in any dimension (time, signal frequency or space) of the acoustic niche. The studied assemblage had the following characteristics: (1) there was one diurnal species, two species with calling activity throughout the day and two species that call at night; (2) only two species overlapped in call frequencies and most had different calls, both in terms of dominant frequencies and in temporal characteristics; and (3) males of the species that overlapped in vocalizing time or signal frequency used different calling microhabitats or heights. This study provides evidence for the acoustic niche hypothesis in anurans, showing low probabilities of interference in sound communication among these frogs. The five species were separated in at least one of the three acoustic dimensions (calling time, frequency and site) as it occurs in mainland communities with more sympatric species of several genera. Conversely, species in single-genus communities studied in Puerto Rico overlapped completely in calling times. This seems to be due to the higher number of sympatric species at our site.

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Uschi Wischhoff, Fernando Marques-Santos, Giselle Bonetti, Lilian T. Manica, James J. Roper and Marcos Rodrigues

Abstract

How are personalities maintained in wild animal populations? A possible mechanism is the existence of trade-offs between fitness components (survival and reproductive success) among behavioural types. We investigated this trade-off in white-rumped swallows (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) by capturing adults and monitoring their reproduction over time. We focused on the personality trait of nest defence against a human. We found that swallows with different levels of nest defence had similar probability to return from migration between two years (a proxy for survival). In one year, swallows that defended their nests more boldly were also more likely to succeed. However, nest defence was not linked to nestling weight or number of fledglings. Thus, we found no evidence of a trade-off between fitness components. It is possible that the investigated relationships become relevant only in extreme years that severely alter the costs and benefits of this behaviour.

Open Access

Esther van der Meer, Nick Lyon, Thomas Mutonhori, Roseline Mandisodza-Chikerema and Peter Blinston

Abstract

When selecting prey, carnivores optimise energy gained when consuming prey against energy spent when pursuing and subduing prey. Additionally, predators seem to preferentially predate on prey which presents a low risk of injury. When defending itself against predators, baboons (Papio spp.) can inflict serious injury and cause mortality. Although part of Africa’s large carnivores’ diet, predation on baboons is usually avoided. We investigated prey selection patterns of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe. Based on direct and indirect observations and analyses of faecal samples, we show that baboons form a substantial part of the African wild dog diet and were more frequently predated on than would be expected based on availability. Predation on baboons did not vary over baboon sex or age classes but was affected by seasonality. This is the first study to describe a preference for predation on this unusual prey species.

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Joana Sabino-Pinto, E. Tobias Krause, Molly C. Bletz, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Sebastian Steinfartz and Miguel Vences

Abstract

Epidemiology relies on understanding the distribution of pathogens which often can be detected through DNA-based techniques, such as quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Typically, the DNA of each individual sample is separately extracted and undergoes qPCR analysis. However, when performing field surveys and long-term monitoring, a large fraction of the samples is generally expected to be negative, especially in geographical areas still considered free of the pathogen. If pathogen detection within a population – rather than determining its individual prevalence – is the focus, work load and monetary costs can be reduced by pooling samples for DNA extraction. We test and refine a user-friendly technique where skin swabs can be pooled during DNA extraction to detect the amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We extracted pools with different numbers of samples (from one to four swabs), without increasing reaction volumes, and each pool had one sample inoculated with a predetermined zoospore amount. Pool size did not reduce the ability to detect the two fungi, except if inoculated with extremely low zoospore amounts (one zoospore). We confirm that pooled DNA extraction of cutaneous swabs can substantially reduce processing time and costs without minimizing detection sensitivity. This is of relevance especially for the new emerging pathogen Bsal, for which pooled DNA extraction had so far not been tested and massive monitoring efforts in putatively unaffected regions are underway.

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Kathleen Preißler, Alexander Dennis Watzal, Miguel Vences and Sebastian Steinfartz

Abstract

In the face of the global biodiversity crisis, the monitoring of species richness and diversity is experiencing an increased demand entailing a raise in cost and time investment. The analysis of species-specific DNA fragments in environmental samples (eDNA) such as from water or soil, facilitate the molecular detection of species without the specific sampling of individuals. The invasive chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is infecting natural fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) and causes chytridiomycosis resulting in infrequent regional extinctions of populations across Central Europe. With regard to the expanding distribution of Bsal over the last years, cost-effective monitoring of fire salamanders is important for the conservation of this species. Based on a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, we developed a new protocol to detect S. salamandra larvae in streams via eDNA, using species-specific primers of the mitochondrial control region (D-loop). We tested the efficiency of qPCR primer sets for six combinations of DNA extraction kits coupled with subsequent PCR inhibitor removal kits for obtaining qPCR-detectable S. salamandra eDNA from water filters, that were taken both from natural streams and artificial water tanks in the laboratory as positive controls. We found that the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit in combination with the DNeasy PowerClean CleanUp Kit performed best for detecting salamander larvae from natural streams. Our experimental protocol paves the way for resource-saving approaches to monitor S. salamandra larvae, but also confirms the limits to this eDNA approach in that it requires optimized laboratory protocols.

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Carlos de la Cruz, Mónica Expósito-Granados and Juliana Valencia

Abstract

In many species of cooperative breeding birds, breeders and helpers participate in the parental care with different food provision rules. Normally, helpers feed nestlings less frequently and with smaller quantities of food than breeders. But studies analysing the reaction of feeders to nestling demand are scarce and rarely measure the quantity of food that is actually delivered. In this study, we analysed the provisioning effort of breeders and helpers in the Iberian Magpie, Cyanopica cooki, and how this effort varies with brood demand. We did so by measuring the nestling feeding rate and the biomass supply of each individual. In this way, we obtained a more accurate measurement of the investment assumed by each individual belonging to each status. We found that breeding males visited the nest more often than both breeding females and helpers (mean = 2.24; 0.85 and 1.58, respectively). Furthermore, breeding males delivered more biomass in each feeding visit to the nest than those from other statuses. Breeders, both male and female, increased their parental effort (i.e., provisioning rate and biomass) when brood demand was higher (i.e., more siblings and older nestlings), whereas helpers contributed differently to the nest, but depending on the two types of helpers occurring in this species. Differences in the possible benefits obtained by breeders and helpers may explain these different strategies. In addition, male and female breeders (but not helpers) reduce the feeding rate throughout the breeding season. Thus, in the Iberian magpie, breeders and helpers reveal different patterns of investment depending on nestling food demand.

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Sylvain Dubey, Guillaume Lavanchy, Jacques Thiébaud and Christophe Dufresnes

Abstract

Biogeographic processes have led to different evolutionary taxa occurring in the northern and southern edges of the Alpine Mountains in Western Europe. The integrity of this diversity is being challenged by frequent human-mediated trans-alpine translocations, sometimes leading to biological invasions. Several alien terrestrial vertebrates of south Alpine origins (Italy, Swiss Ticino) are causing damages to native north Alpine fauna. In this paper, we used molecular tools to characterize the understudied case of the Mediterranean smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris meridionalis) expanding in the outskirts of Geneva since its introduction before 1975. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequencing suggest that these exotic populations are a mixture between two diverged L. v. meridionalis lineages from central Italy, and traces of potential hybridization with the native L. v. vulgaris was detected. This situation echoes many other trans-alpine alien introductions. We review all comparable cases of southern to northern Alps introductions in vertebrates, including seven reptiles and four amphibians. The majority of south alpine alien lineages were presumably imported voluntarily by enthusiasts and appear to perform better in the disturbed habitats found in the anthropogenic landscapes of Western Europe compared to their native north Alpine counterparts. Most pose serious threats to related species of similar ecology, through direct competition, predation and introgressive hybridization. Difficulties to detect alien species on time lead to significant conservation costs. Better education together with more appropriate and reactive management plans will be necessary to limit the impact of future alien introductions.

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K. Wojczulanis-Jakubas, J. Plenzler and D. Jakubas

Abstract

Behavioural contagion is a curious phenomenon of human social life which is believed to facilitate group living. It has also been demonstrated in animals that some behaviours may be contagious: how widespread this phenomenon is remains unclear, as only a few species have been tested. In this context, we examined whether three behaviours commonly exhibited by moulting southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina): “sneezing”, scratching and yawning could be contagious. Using the randomization approach, we found this to be the case in general for all the behaviours, although the pattern was not that obvious or present at all for all the social groups. This indicates there is a potential for social contagion but the issue is complex. Despite limitations associated with observational study on small-size social groups, this is the first report of contagious behaviours in marine mammals and is to encourage further investigation.