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Tineidae II

(Myrmecozelinae, Perissomasticinae, Tineinae, Hieroxestinae, Teichobiinae and Stathmopolitinae)

Reinhard Gaedike

This second volume on Tineidae treats the subfamilies Myrmecozelinae, Perissomasticinae, Tineinae, Hieroxestinae, Teichobiinae and Stathmopolitinae of Europe. It presents information for the identification of 103 species of tineid moths. Information is added on the life history and distribution of each species. The distribution data are summarized in a table showing the records for each European country. 23 scientific names are synonymized and two taxa previously regarded as synonyms have proved to represent valid species.
Additional records are listed for species treated in volume 7, as well as two taxa which were overlooked before and nine new species are listed.
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Thiago Xisto and Maria Cleide de Mendonça

Aimed at extending the incipient knowledge of Dicranocentrus in Brazil, in this study we describe and illustrate the morphology and chaetotaxy of four new species from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and São Paulo States and also two new records of D. heloisae for Minas Gerais and São Paulo States. The new species D. magnus sp.n., D. albicephalus sp.n. and D. marimutti sp.n. belong to the gracilis-group and D. pikachu sp.n. to the marias-group. A map with their distribution in Brazil and a table with Neotropical species’ main characteristics are also provided. The species herein reported represent the first record of Dicranocentrus for São Paulo State.

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Antonio Zurita, Rocío Callejón, Manuel de Rojas and Cristina Cutillas

In the present work, a comparative morphological and molecular study of Nosopsyllus barbarus (Jordan & Rothschild 1912) and Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc, d’Antic 1800) isolated from rodents from different geographical regions (Spain, Morocco, Belgium, France and Portugal) has been carried out. The Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1, ITS2) and partial 18S rRNA, and partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) mtDNA sequences were determined to clarify the taxonomic status of these two species and to assess intraspecific variation and inter-specific sequence differences. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis with other species of fleas using Bayesian inference was performed. We have found morphological differences between N. barbarus and N. fasciatus that did not correspond with molecular differences. Furthermore, any of the five molecular markers used in this study was able to discriminate between the two species. Thus, based on the phylogenetic and molecular study of three nuclear markers (18S, ITS1, ITS2) and two mitochondrial markers (cox1 and cytb), as well as the concatenated dataset of both species, we concluded that morphological characters traditionally used to discriminate between the two species do not provide solid arguments for considering these two “morphospecies” as two different species. Therefore, we propose N. barbarus should be considered as a junior synonym of N. fasciatus.

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Diego J. Inclán, James E. O’Hara, John O. Stireman III, Hiroshi Shima, Jaakko Pohjoismäki, Giuseppe Lo Giudice and Pierfilippo Cerretti

The Glaurocarini are a small Old World tribe of tachinids belonging to the subfamily Tachininae. Two genera are currently recognized, Glaurocara Thomson with 16 species and Semisuturia Malloch with eight species. In this study we describe Semisuturia moffattensis Inclán, O’Hara, Stireman & Cerretti sp. n. from Queensland and New South Wales and compare it with congeners as well as other glaurocarines. The new species is readily identifiable among world glaurocarines by having a row of setae on lower 2/3 of facial ridge. We further evaluate the monophyly of the Glaurocarini on the basis of morphological characters of both adult and larval stages. A molecular phylogenetic analysis also supports monophyly of the tribe but does not support a close relationship between Glaurocarini and Ormiini as has been suggested previously. Finally, we provide new morphological evidence from both adults and first instar larvae to support the monophyly of both Semisuturia and Glaurocara.

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Christine V. Schmidt and Jürgen Heinze

The myrmicine ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a peculiar male diphenism with winged disperser males and wingless, “ergatoid” fighter males. Here we describe and illustrate the morphology of the male external genitalia of 13 species of this genus. Several characters, especially the parossiculus of the volsella and the medial face of the paramere, vary between different species groups and might be useful to clarify the infrageneric taxonomy of Cardiocondyla. External genitalia between different phenotypes of a species differ primarily in size. All examined males, both winged and ergatoid, have a parameral hook that resembles a structure described in Nesomyrmex males but apparently is absent in other studied myrmicine ants. The presence and absence of this hook might be useful for future studies on the relationships within the myrmicine tribe Crematogastrini.

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Tomohide Yasunaga, Sachiko Akagi and Seidai Nagashima

The mirine plant bug fauna of the genus Stenotus Jakovlev in Japan, Korea, East China, and Russian Far East is reviewed. Seven species are recognized in the study area; of these, two new species are herein described, namely S. hasegawai sp.n., restricted to cool-temperate climate zones in Japan and Sakhalin, Russia and S. takaii sp.n. assumed to be endemic to Amami-Oshima Island of the Japanese Ryukyus. The Taiwanese species, S. insularis Poppius, is reported from the Ryukyus for the first time and redescribed; the other taxon, S. viridis (Shiraki), is regarded as a nomen dubium, lacking any type series. An additional new species from Nepal, S. ramduwalae sp.n., is described. A checklist of East Asia and Oriental species and a key to all known East Asian species are provided. Stenotus longiceps Poppius is transferred to Zalmunna Distant. The zoogeography of these East Asian Stenotus species is discussed.

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Paola D’Alessandro, Roberta Frasca, Elizabeth Grobbelaar, Mattia Iannella and Maurizio Biondi

A taxonomic revision of the species attributed to the subgenus Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) Biondi & D’Alessandro is provided. Seven new species are described: Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) afarensis sp. nov. and B. (A.) tajurensis sp. nov. from Djibouti; B. (A.) bantu sp. nov. from Kenya; B. (A.) benadiriensis sp. nov. from Somalia; B. (A.) nubiana sp. nov. from Sudan; B. (A.) pusilla sp. nov. from Ethiopia and Kenya; B. (A.) zephyra sp. nov. from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria. An updated catalogue, including material examined, distributions, chorotypes, and ecological notes, is supplied. The revision comprises a key to the eleven known species, habitus photos, and microscope and scanning electron micrographs of diagnostic characters, including the aedeagus and spermatheca. A phylogenetic analysis based on parsimony was provided. The strict consensus tree was used to put forward a preliminary biogeographical analysis of the taxon in the light of the current distribution of the species.

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Alexey V. Solovyev and Alessandro Giusti

The genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841 distributed from India and Japan to New Guinea is revised. At present it includes a total of 31 species (34 taxa including subspecies), of which 16 are described as new to science: S. witti, S. pichugini, S. palawana, S. busa, S. jakli, S. uljanae, S. nusatenggarica, S. wetara, S. philippina, S. buraena, S. geminus, S. rudloffi, S. tanimbara, S. brechlini, S. lourensi, and S. notata. Lectotypes are designated for 9 taxa: Bethura minax, Scopelodes lutea, S. pallivittata, S. testacea, S. aurogrisea, S. exigua, S. magnifica, S. dinawa, S. sericea. New synonymy is established for the taxa: Scopelodes testacea = Scopelodes exigua niassica, syn. n. The taxa S. aurogrisea Moore and S. bicolor Wu & Fang are regarded as subspecies within S. venosa Walker. A new combination is proposed here: S. brunneipennis, comb. n. (the species is transferred from the genus Comana Walker).

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Maria E. Maldaner, Fernando Z. Vaz-de-Mello, Daniela M. Takiya and Daniela C. Ferreira

Coprophanaeus (Megaphanaeus) d’Olsoufieff, 1924 has four valid species: C. lancifer (Linné, 1767), C. ensifer (Germar, 1821), C. bonariensis (Gory, 1844) and C. bellicosus (Olivier, 1789). However, authors disagree about the placement of C. bellicosus. Thus, our aims were (I) to test if Megaphanaeus is a monophyletic group and (II) verify to which subgenus C. bellicosus belongs. We sequenced three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker for ten Phanaeini species: COI (672bp), COI-II (1326bp), 16S (527bp) and 28S (994bp). For fifteen species we sequenced two markers, COI (681pb) and 16S (532pb). Both matrices were analyzed under three methods of phylogenetic inference: Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference. Megaphanaeus is here considered monophyletic including C. bellicosus as sister-group to (C. bonariensis (C. lancifer + C. ensifer)). All analyses recovered the non-monophyly of both C. lancifer and C. ensifer, because of a population of C. lancifer grouped with C. ensifer specimens.

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Paulo Vilela Cruz, Frederico Falcão Salles and Neusa Hamada

The taxonomic knowledge of Baetidae has been greatly improved in the last decades in South America. Despite the advances, there are problems that need to be addressed. One of these problems is doubt concerning the systematics of species assigned to the genera Paracloeodes Day, Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and Varipes Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and the evolution of long setae on femora. In the present paper, the monophyly of these three genera is tested using a cladistic approach. The matrix included 53 species and 151 morphological characters: 127 for nymphs and 24 for adults. The dataset was analyzed under equal and implied weights with nine values of k. Group support was estimated with relative Bremer and frequency differences. The results corroborate (i) the paraphyly of Paracloeodes and Varipes, which become monophyletic without P. caldensis + V. singuil, proposed as a new genus Rhopyscelis gen. n., (ii) the long setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iii) the transversal rows of setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iv) the spine on subgenital plate as an independent acquisition between Paracloeodes, Rivudiva and Gen. A.