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This is a ground-breaking philosophical-historical study of the work of Galen of Pergamum. It contains four case-studies on (1) Galen’s remarkable and original thoughts on the relation between body and soul, (2) his notion of human nature, (3) his engagement with Plato’s Timaeus, (4) and black bile and melancholy. It shows that Galen develops an innovative view of human nature that problematizes the distinction between body and soul.
Volume Editors: Alyssa DeBlasio and Victoria Juharyan
This volume explores the influence of the Socratic legacy in the Russian, East European, and Soviet contexts. For writers, philosophers, and artists, Socrates has served as a potent symbol—of the human capacity for philosophical reflection, as well as the tumultuous (and often dangerous) reality in which Russian-speaking and Soviet intellectuals found themselves. The thirteen chapters include surveys of historical periods and movements (the 18th century, Nietzscheanism, and the “Greek Renaissance” of Russian culture), studies of individual writers and philosophers (Skovoroda, Herzen, Dostoevsky, Rozanov, Bely, Narbut, and many others), and investigations of Socratic subtexts (e.g., in Bulgakov’s Master and Margarita and Nosov’s Neznaika series for children). The volume concludes with a “Socratic Texts” section of new translations. The plurality of these topics demonstrates the continued relevance of the Socratic myth not only for Russian-speaking culture, but for the world.
Volume Editors: Jana Schultz and James Wilberding
Sosipatra, Hypatia, Macrina: some of the most famous female philosophers of antiquity were connected to Neoplatonism. But what does it mean to be a woman philosopher in late antiquity? How is the inclusive nature of the Neoplatonic schools connected to their ethical, political, and metaphysical ideas? What role does the religious dimension of late Neoplatonism and the role of women as priestesses play in understanding Neoplatonic women philosophers?
This book offers thirteen essays that examine women and the female in Neoplatonism from a variety of perspectives, paying particular attention to the interactions between the metaphysics, psychology, and ethics.
Brill’s Plato Studies Series aims to gather together the most recent and relevant contributions, in order to identify debates and trends within the study of Plato and to provide a holistic understanding of the wide range of issues related to Plato’s philosophy. Of special significance for the series will be the examination of Plato’s literary style and its relationship to his theoretical project as, perhaps, one of the central problems in the study of Plato and Ancient Philosophy as a whole. Even after two thousand years there is still no consensus about why Plato expresses his ideas in such a unique style and the series will aim to address this question. In addition, the Series will warmly welcome contributions focusing on internal and recurrent issues like the relation between myth and philosophy, language, epistemology and ontology in Plato’s work. Special attention will also be given to new interpretative challenges and recent hermeneutical trends, which have emerged from the globalization of current Platonic studies. These new approaches to Plato are likely to change the future frame of Platonic scholarship, providing instruments and renewed impulses for the generations of philosophers to come.
Der Ausdruck „die goldene Mitte finden“ ist bekannt – aber wissen Sie auch, wer die Idee wesentlich geprägt hat? Kleiner Tipp: Es war der vielleicht wichtigste Philosoph der Antike. Aristoteles schuf mit seinen Ausführungen zur Angemessenheit gewissermaßen eine Leitlinie für’s Glücklichsein. Er plädierte dafür, sich stets zwischen einem „zu viel“ und einem „zu wenig“ zu bewegen. Sein Leitfaden zu einem glücklichen Leben war jedoch nur ein Aspekt eines schier unerschöpflichen philosophischen Werkes. Darüber hinaus verfasste Aristoteles eine Fülle an Schriften zur Logik, Metaphysik, politischen Philosophie und nicht zuletzt zur Zoologie. Der neue Comic aus der Reihe „Philosophische Einstiege“ macht den griechischen Philosophen auch für Anfänger:innen sehr gut verständlich und besticht dabei mit zahlreichen Illustrationen, die für Anschaulichkeit und Spaß am eigenen Philosophieren sorgen. So gelingt eine unkomplizierte Einführung in die wichtigsten Aristotelischen Werke und Gedanken.
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In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

Abstract

The paper provides a reconstruction of proof by contradiction in Kant’s pure general logic. A seemingly less-explored point of view on this topic is how apagogical proof can account for the formal truth of a judgement. Integrating the argument held by Kjosavik (2019), I intend to highlight how one can use proof by contradiction, conceived as a modus tollens, to establish the logical actuality (logical or formal truth) of a cognition. Although one might agree on the capacity of the proof to prove formal falsity, the logical actuality of a judgement is assessable based on a logically grounded judgement and, as for transcendental logic, this cognitive operation has to presuppose the real possibility of an object.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

In the past forty years, epistemology is one of the fastest growing branches of philosophy. Among the new topics studied by epistemologists are peer disagreement, wisdom, know-how, propaganda, understanding and explanation, testimony, epistemic value, collective and extended knowledge, epistemic injustice, and memory. Research on Kant has also grown immensely over the last decades. Given the unique legacy of Kant’s philosophy, and the fact that philosophy always benefits from a serious and sustained engagement with its history one would expect Kantian ideas to figure prominently in contemporary epistemology. But this is not the case. Even bracketing differences in terminology, Kant’s epistemological

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In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Author: Simon Dierig

Abstract

In this essay, I discuss three readings of Descartes’ Meditations. According to the first reading, “I exist” is for Descartes the foundation of our knowledge. This reading is dismissed on the grounds that, in his view, as long as God’s existence is not proven there is a good reason to doubt this proposition. Proponents of the second reading claim that there are two kinds of Cartesian knowledge: perfect and imperfect knowledge. The meditator has imperfect knowledge of “I exist” before God’s existence is proven. Subsequently, she acquires perfect knowledge of various metaphysical theorems. This reading is repudiated, too. I argue for a third reading, according to which “I think” – and not “I exist” – is the foundation of our knowledge.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Rawls and Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas
John Rawls is the most influential 20th century political philosopher, but critics have complained about the ahistorical character of his approach. The purpose of this book is to argue that these critics are, at best, only half correct.Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy concentrates on four pre-liberal thinkers who are major figures in the history of philosophy and who are surprisingly formative in the development of Rawls’s mature political philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.
Several illuminating connections are drawn between Rawls’s political liberalism and Plato’s contrasting appeal to the “noble lie” in politics, between Rawls’s overall method of reflective equilibrium and Aristotle’s dialectic, between Rawls’s opposition to merit in the distribution of wealth and Augustine’s similar anti-Pelagian stance, and between Rawls’s view of a just society as a common good of common goods and the natural law dimension of Aquinas’s philosophy. In general, the distance between Rawlsian abstraction and his historical embeddedness is lessened considerably.