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Knowledge Mobilization in TESOL

Connecting Research and Practice

Edited by Sardar M. Anwaruddin

Most debates about the so-called research-practice gap in TESOL have focused on a one-way transfer of research evidence from the context of origin to the context of application. Rather than continuing such debates, Knowledge Mobilization in TESOL: Connecting Research and Practice sheds light on what happens after research is transferred to contexts of practice such as the classroom. It explores whether or not, and under what circumstances, research can make contributions to teachers’ professional learning and development. By featuring English language teachers’ first-hand accounts of research utilization, the book highlights the complex processes of making research-based knowledge meaningful for pedagogical practice. It shows why the success of any knowledge mobilization project depends on sensitivity to context and teachers’ interpretive engagement with research-based recommendations.

Written in a lucid and accessible style, Knowledge Mobilization in TESOL: Connecting Research and Practice will appeal to a broad readership interested in research utilization in the field of education, especially in TESOL. It will be an informative text for pre-service and graduate courses in TESOL, ELT, applied linguistics, teacher education, and education policy studies. In-service teachers, teacher educators, program administrators, and funding agencies will also find it to be a valuable resource.

Contributors are: Chris Banister, Leigh Yohei Bennett, Xin Chen, Tiffany Johnson, Kendon Kurzer, Cynthia Macknish, Michael McLelland, Nashwa Donna M. Neary, Gina Paschalidou, Aysenur Sagdic, Nashaat Sobhy, Nguyen Thi Thuy Loan, Lorena Valmori, and Robert E. White.
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The Translational Design of Universities

An Evidence-Based Approach

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Edited by Kenn Fisher

Whilst the schools are transforming their physical and virtual environments at a relatively glacial pace in most countries across the globe, universities are under extreme pressure to adapt to the rapid emergence of the virtual campus. Competition for students by online course providers is increasing and resulting in a parallel rapidly emerging impact in understanding what the nature of the traditional campus will look like in the 21st century.

In blending the virtual and the physical, technology enabled active blended, or hybrid, earning environments are now integrating the face-to-face and online virtual experience synchronously and asynchronously. Local branch campuses are emerging in city and town centres, and international branch campuses are growing at a rapid rate.There is also an increasing pressure at a number of levels the city/urban, the campus as a whole, the formal and informal learning spaces, plus the library and social or third-space levels.

Many new hybrid campus developments are not based on any form of scholarly rigorous evidence with the risk that many of these projects may fail. In taking an evidence-based approach this book seeks to align with the model of translational research from medical practice, using a modified ‘translational design’ approach. The majority of the chapter material comes from scholarly pieces of work through the efforts of doctoral graduates and their dissertations.

This book is the second in a series on evidence-based translational design of educational institutions, with the first volume focussing on schools. The current volume on Higher Education seeks to cover the city to the classroom and those elements in between. In so doing it also seeks to fathom what the future might look like as judgements are made about what does work in campus planning and design, in both the virtual and physical worlds.

Contributors are: Neda Abbasi, Ronald Beckers, Flavia Curvelo Magdaniel, Mollie Dollinger, Robert A. Ellis, Barry J. Fraser, Kobi (Jacov) Haina, Leah Irving, Ji Yu, Marian Mahat, Saadia Majeed, Mahmoud Reza Saghafi, Panayiotis Skordi, Jacqueline Pizzuti-Ashby, Leanne Rose-Munro, and Alejandra Torres-Landa Lopez.
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Johanna öberg

Abstract

A learning activity inspired by game-informed learning was designed with the aim of promoting participation and critical thinking. The observed learning activity was analysed in order to understand how pupils act within the given and created roles, frames, and positions. The learning activity was based on role-play, in which the pupils assumed the role of co-researchers. The implemented role-playing activity included gamification elements (e.g. rewards, narrative, and feedback). We explored the question: How does game-informed learning promote participation? A total of 15 pupils participated in the activity over the course of 16 weeks. When role-playing as co-researchers, the pupils choose their own research question and research methods. The process of this research game was documented in 16 field notes, two interviews with the participating teachers, and several observations. This data was analysed according to Goffman’s and Mead’s concepts of role. The findings indicate that several factors affect pupils’ engagement in the role of co-researchers: being perceived as professionals, interacting and communicating in a new location and setting, giving and receiving feedback, and being recognised through the results obtained. The study contributes to the understanding that a design focused on such factors can facilitate children’s participation.

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Designing with Teachers

Contrasting Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of a Gamified Application for Foreign Language Learners

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Caroline Cruaud

Abstract

Developing new gamified educational resources or educational games takes time, and it is natural to want to ensure the success of their integration in the classroom. For this reason, it is important to look at the role of the teacher before and during the implementation. However, research on gamification and game-based learning has been focused on students, and very little has been said about teachers (Kenny & McDaniel, 2011). This study contrasts two teachers’ experiences of the implementation of a gamified app with regard to their participation in the design process. Interviews with teachers and video data from the classroom have been analysed to find out how the teachers experienced the implementation and in what ways their involvement in the project is reflected in their respective experiences and in the accounts of their experiences. The analysis reveals that the two teachers have had very different experiences of the implementation. Where the first teacher developed familiarity with and ownership over the application, the second teacher felt lost and stopped using it. Involving teachers through co-design or using flexible instructional designs has advantages, but other factors should be considered when implementing new resources (e.g., class context, teachers’ previous experience, teacher training). This study opens up new questions on the teacher’s role in the integration of games and gamified applications in the classroom but also raises the issue of their potential participation in the design of new resources.

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Edited by Hans Christian Arnseth, Thorkild Hanghøj, Thomas Duus Henriksen, Morten Misfeldt, Robert Ramberg and Staffan Selander

Foreword : James Paul Gee

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Edited by Hans Christian Arnseth, Thorkild Hanghøj, Thomas Duus Henriksen, Morten Misfeldt, Robert Ramberg and Staffan Selander

Foreword : James Paul Gee

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Staffan Selander, Victor Lim Fei, Mats Wiklund and Uno Fors

Abstract

Digital games and simulations for learning are not new phenomena. However, with the advancements in technology, they have gathered increasing interest over recent years. With digital ubiquity, games and simulations offer a compelling case for use in schools. As such, it is useful to understand the value and issues related to the use of digital games and simulations for learning as well as to develop a new frame for thinking on how to design learning in educational settings, harnessing the affordances of technology through the effective use of digital games and simulations.

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Game-Based Learning in the Dialogical Classroom

Videogames for Collaborative Reasoning about Morality and Ethics in Citizenship Education

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Filipa de Sousa

Abstract

This chapter focuses on game-based learning (GBL), and the way a commercial videogame was used to foster collaborative reasoning about morality and ethics in citizenship education. A high school class was video recorded for four weeks, and the data was analyzed to investigate how students collaboratively reasoned in the GBL situation. Post-interview data were also considered. The study found that collaborative reasoning was mediated both by the videogame and the dialogical interactions facilitated by the teacher. Students appropriated both bottom-up and top-down reasoning processes and positioned themselves to anchor practical and conceptual knowledge. This research proposes a learning model that describes the anchoring process as an important tool for promoting content understanding and collaborative reasoning in learning across contexts with GBL.

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Games as Tools for Dialogic Teaching and Learning

Outlining a Pedagogical Model for Researching and Designing Game-Based Learning Environments

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Hans Christian Arnseth, Thorkild Hanghøj and Kenneth Silseth

Abstract

In this chapter we introduce an analytic and normative model of how games can be used as part of dialogic teaching and learning practices in the classroom. In our research during the last few years, we have been analysing how students makes sense of computer games in educational contexts. We have also been concerned with design-based research and with implementing games into more complex learning designs. Based on our experiences we wanted to focus more explicitly on teaching and the importance of the teacher in realizing the potentials of game-based learning. We found that more context sensitive models for implementing games into teaching and learning practices were lacking. Our model is grounded in a sociocultural and dialogic approach to meaning making and we discuss important concepts from this theory such as voice, utterance and artifact. We argue that we cannot expect that games themselves have particular effects on pedagogy and learning. On the contrary, the potentials of games needs to be realised in practice. We also contextualize and ground our argument in international research and in our own studies on the use of games in classrooms, and we argue that games can provide teachers with interesting means for creating more active and reflective learning experiences for students in the classroom. Our learning design model emphasize the interrelationship between instructional categories and it represents a model for planning and carrying out teaching with games in classrooms. Having said that, it can also be a useful model for analysing how games work as part of complex learning ecologies.

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Thomas Duus Henriksen

Abstract

This chapter examines how group processes unfold while playing a learning game for adults. Through the study of a Swedish deployment of ‘The EIS Simulation’, which is a collaborative learning game on change management and overcoming organisational resistance, it is shown how social processes emerge and affect the group’s decision-making process. The chapter proposes an analytical distinction between two levels of interaction, which both affect decision-making, and consequently the learning process. The primary processes concern the direct interaction with the game, and governed by its mechanics. The secondary processes emerge among participants as a consequence of the game, but become governed by emergent social mechanics. From this distinction, the chapter finds that while secondary mechanics take up a significant proportion of the time spent playing, they offer an opportunity for a multitude of processes to unfold that are crucial to adult learning.