Merchants, Jesuits and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Slaves
Lúcio De Sousa
Transnational Mobility of Nordic Engineers and Architects, 1880-1930
Social Impacts of Interpersonal Encounters
Contributors are Karsten Giese, Guive Khan Mohammad, Katy Lam, Ben Lampert, Kelly Si Miao Liang, Laurence Marfaing, Gordon Mathews, Giles Mohan, Amy Niang, Yoon Jung Park, Alena Thiel, Naima Topkiran.
Lars Holden and Svetlana Boudko
This article describes the development of the Norwegian Historical Population Register, which is the first open national register. In the period 1735–1964, 9.7 million people lived in Norway, and for them 37.5 million events (such as birth, death, or migration) have been recorded in sources. We link together as many events as possible for the same persons and families, but only include links that have a high probability of being correct. The linking is performed by automatic methods and crowdsourcing. A national population register is important for migration research. It allows us to reconstruct (stepwise) internal migration in Norway, frequently followed by international migration from Norway, as well as return migration to Norway. Many non-Norwegian sources also specify place of birth by country, and this makes it possible to identify individuals in Norwegian sources.
Gunnar Thorvaldsen and Nils Olav Østrem
The Historical Population Register (HPR) of Norway gives rise to new research opportunities on a large array of topics spanning medicine, social sciences and humanities. This introductory article outlines the contents of the register, the periods it covers, and its use, particularly with respect to the study of geographic mobility. This article introduces the articles in this issue, which concentrate on the emigration to the US and the returnee emigrants.
In this article I attempt to utilise the vast efforts invested in a particularly Norwegian genre of local history, namely the farm and genealogy books (bygdebok, plural bygdebøker), to analyse aspects of migration, especially remigration from North America, in a micro-historical perspective. Such books, of which a rather large corpus exists, contain detailed longitudinal data on people and holdings within a limited region, usually a rural municipality or parish. Consulting two works from this bygdebok genre as primary sources, I identify and analyse those people who re-migrated to Norway after having been in North America prior to the commission of the 1910 census.
Both the completed transcription of our emigration protocols and the construction of the Norwegian national Historical Population Register, among other developments, make an article about methods for studying emigration from Norway through the last couple of centuries topical. This article starts by discussing the Norwegian and American sources through which we can identify the emigrants’ absence from Norway. In particular, it focuses attention on groups that are difficult to follow because of international migration, and the consequences this has for emigration statistics. A key issue for further research is the degree to which emigration and return migration are reflected in the population registry.
Between 1825 and 1960 900,000 Norwegians emigrated. Before 1930 more than 95 per cent went to the United States. The rate of return to Norway was low in comparison to many other nations who sent large numbers to the US after 1880. High quality census enumerations in both countries, that are now available in electronic format, allow the possibility of reconstructing the lives and voyages of some of these migrants. Even with a low rate of return-migration there were more than 50,000 return migrants. Constructing a large sample of return migrants observed in both Norway and the US becomes more feasible with electronic search and matching strategies. This article gives an overview of available and soon forthcoming sources in the North Atlantic Population Project, the possibility of electronic linkages, and the challenges of this research strategy. Using a group of 448 Norwegian migrants matched between the 1900 American and 1910 Norwegian census, an empirical analysis shows that migration and marital transitions were likely to have been closely linked. Machine-linked records hold the promise of being able to trace several thousand Norwegians across the Atlantic and back again.