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Beyond the Legacy of the Missionaries and East Indians

The Impact of the Presbyterian Church in the Caribbean

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Jerome Teelucksingh

In Beyond the Legacy of the Missionaries and East Indians Jerome Teelucksingh intends to establish a revisionist perspective of the role of the Presbyterian Church in Trinidad in the enlightenment of the society, especially the faster rate of social mobility achieved by the Indo-Caribbean diaspora in the post-World War 1 era. Additionally, the Presbyterian Church in the Caribbean provided the vital human and financial resources needed to champion the elevation of Indian women. By simultaneously providing a formal education whilst assisting the poor and oppressed, the Canadian missionaries and locally-trained persons played a pivotal role in the colonial society.

El éxodo español de 1939

Una topología cultural del exilio

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Mónica Jato

El éxodo español de 1939: una topología cultural del exilio explores the cultural strategies employed by Spanish Republican refugees in adapting to radical changes in their environment and transforming the new spaces into habitable places. Thus the monograph highlights the centrality of the concept of place in the reconstruction of the lost home by analysing the various stages of the relocation of culture in exile: from French internment camps, on board ships, and finally to residence in Mexico.
Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, Jato contends that the experience of space in exile is relational, and that the staging posts described in each chapter have no meaning unless they are interconnected as integral parts of a cultural topology.



En El éxodo español de 1939: una topología cultural del exilio Mónica Jato da cuenta de las variadas estrategias culturales empleadas por los refugiados republicanos españoles para adaptarse a las condiciones de sus nuevos entornos con el fin de transformarlos en lugares habitables. El libro indaga así la centralidad del concepto de lugar en la reconstrucción del hogar perdido y lo hace a través de sus diferentes etapas: en los campos de internamiento franceses, en los barcos rumbo a América y durante el asentamiento en tierras mexicanas.
La experiencia del exilio es abordada aquí desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria que pone de manifiesto el aspecto relacional de estas pausas espaciales cuya interconexión define esta particular topología cultural.

United States in a World in Crisis

The Geopolitics of Precarious Work and Super-Exploitation

Adrián Sotelo Valencia

This work by the distinguished Mexican theorist Adrián Sotelo Valencia explores new dimensions of super-exploitation in a context of the structural crisis of capitalism and imperialism. Steeped in a new generation of radical dependency theory and informed by the legacy of his own mentor, the famous Brazilian Marxist Ruy Mauro Marini, Sotelo rigorously examines prevailing theoretical debates regarding the expansion of super-exploitation in advanced capitalism. Building upon a Marinist framework, he goes beyond Marini to identify new forms of super-exploitation that shape the growing precarity of work. Sotelo demonstrates the inextricable link between reliance upon fictitious capital and the intensification of super-exploitation. Poignant contrasts are drawn between US capitalism and Mexico that reveal the nefarious new forms of imperialist dependency.

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Daniela Spenser

Vicente Lombardo Toledano was the founder of numerous labour union organisations in Mexico and Latin America between the 1920s to the 1960s. He was not only an organiser but also a broker between the unions, the government, and business leaders, able to disentangle difficult conflicts. He cooperated closely with the governments of Mexico and other Latin American nations and worked with the representatives of the Soviet Union when he considered it useful. As a result he was alternately seen as a government stooge or a communist, even though he was never a member of the party or of the Mexican government administration.

Daniela Spenser's is the first biography of Lombardo Toledano based on his extensive private papers, on primary sources from European, Mexican and American archives, and on personal interviews. Her even-keeled portrayal of the man counters previous hagiographies and/or vilifications.

Translating Marx

José Aricó and the New Latin American Marxism

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Martín Cortés

To speak of ‘Latin American Marxism’ is to announce a problem. To what extent can Marxism, a theoretical universe forged from nineteenth-century European experiences, also be productive for grasping other realities? How can we begin to make sense of the historical disconnection between that specific corpus of ideas and Latin America’s popular movements? Martín Cortés addresses these questions by considering the trajectory and works of José Aricó, who sought to rethink and disseminate in Spanish not only the works of Marx himself, but also those of foundational socialist thinkers such as Antonio Gramsci.
Guided by an interest in Marxism’s renovation, Cortés explores Aricó’s vital contributions to key topics in political theory, such as the nation, the state, the political subject, and hegemony.

Workers’ Self-Management in Argentina

Contesting Neo-Liberalism by Occupying Companies, Creating Cooperatives, and Recuperating Autogestión

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Marcelo Vieta

In Workers’ Self-Management in Argentina, Marcelo Vieta homes in on the emergence and consolidation of Argentina’s empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores (ERTs, worker-recuperated enterprises), a workers’ occupy movement that surged at the turn-of-the-millennium in the thick of the country’s neo-liberal crisis. Since then, around 400 companies have been taken over and converted to cooperatives by almost 16,000 workers. Grounded in class-struggle Marxism and a critical sociology of work, the book situates the ERT movement in Argentina’s long tradition of working-class activism and the broader history of workers’ responses to capitalist crisis. Beginning with the voices of the movement’s protagonists, Vieta ultimately develops a compelling social theory of autogestión – a politically prefigurative and ethically infused notion of workers’ self-management that unleashes radical social change for work organisations, surrounding communities, and beyond.

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Peter Eeckhout

Abstract

The late pre-Columbian period in the region of Lima has mainly been studied and described thanks to the help of ethnohistorical sources. Urban development has destroyed many pre-hispanic ruins, but nevertheless a growing amount of archaeological data is now available. It is especially since 2008 that renewed interest in the pre-hispanic past of Lima has emerged, including through the development of rescue archeology and heritage management. In this chapter, I propose to use these different types of sources to develop a synthetic picture of the sociopolitical organization of the area under the Inca Empire.

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Carlos Alberto González Sánchez

Abstract

In the Iberoamerican world, printing and written culture in general, proliferated in episcopal and university venues, enclaves which also had institutional, economic, and political equipment in tune with the typographic developments of the time. In 16th-century Spanish America, Lima was an important center of administrative and governmental infrastructure. Additionally, it was a center of learning and research, home to convent libraries, research centers, and even a royally sanctioned university, the Universidad de San Marcos. Lima, therefore, was home to a wide-ranging literary public made up of the clergy, professors, scholars, students, employees, and liberal professionals. At the end of the 16th century, Lima could boast of being the most dynamic cultural enclave in the South America, equipped with material far superior to that of many Spanish and European medium-sized cities.

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María Gracia Ríos

Abstract

This chapter argues that British piracy in Spanish American territories impacted the Peruvian viceroyalty both politically and culturally, inspiring new ways of reflecting on challenges to the Spanish Empire from within its colonies. At first, maritime predation became a rhetorical tool for Spaniards to claim sovereignty and possession over the New World. Later on, it helped to justify the need of a well-organized and trained American army that could defend the American coasts from English maritime forces and the inland region from rebellious indigenous groups. As I conclude, the presence of European enemies in the Viceroyalty of Peru fostered a new literary voice that sought to represent Lima as its distinctive place of enunciation.

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Susan Finque

Abstract

In rediscovering a business contract drawn up in 16th-century Callao, an entire culture of secular, professional theater in 16th-century Lima is revealed. Inarguably creating the first theater company in the Western Hemisphere, the contract has male and female signatories, a democratic structure, business sophistication, and synchronicity with theater practices in Shakespeare’s London. Asking what motivated the profession’s movement west, I argue the causes included restrictions on women (and all) actors and the zeitgeist of colonial fervor. Players were onstage in Spanish America 100 years earlier than current hegemonic narratives have suggested; the contract’s neglect reveals pervasive biases in historiography. Theater culture makes a case for Lima as an underappreciated, diverse, modernizing early center of artistic development, cultural mixing, and women’s independent agency. Embodied cultural texts contain evidence of artistic continuity and evolution, but an archival discovery such as this contract demands new perspectives on the genealogy of American theater history.