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Kritik des Wachstumsmodells

Die Grenzen alttestamentlicher Redaktionsgeschichte im Lichte empirischer Evidenz

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Benjamin Ziemer

Mit seiner bahnbrechenden preisgekrönten Kritik des Wachstumsmodells plädiert Benjamin Ziemer für einen Paradigmenwechsel in der alttestamentlichen Literaturgeschichte. Er untersucht in detaillierten Einzelstudien einen repräsentativen Katalog empirischer Beispiele für Redaktion, vom Gilgamesch-Epos über das ägyptische Totenbuch bis hin zu biblischen Büchern (Chronik, Jeremia, Daniel, Esther) und Qumranschriften (Tempelrolle, Sektenregel). Er zeigt, dass die durch Textvergleich nachweisbaren Redaktoren ihre Vorlagen nie nur durch Neues erweitert, sondern immer auch zugleich Formulierungen angepasst oder vervielfältigt, heterogenes Material eingearbeitet oder eine kürzende Auswahl getroffen haben. Bislang dominieren im kontinentaleuropäischen Forschungskontext Fortschreibungs- und Ergänzungshypothesen, nach denen man ein beliebiges Textelement nur der richtigen Entstehungsschicht zuweisen müsse, um seinen ursprünglichen literarischen Kontext wiederherstellen zu können. Dieses Modell stufenweisen »literarischen Wachstums« ist, so Ziemer, wissenschaftlich nicht mehr haltbar.
With his groundbreaking award-winnig study Kritik des Wachstumsmodells, Benjamin Ziemer is arguing for a change of paradigm in Old Testament literary criticism. He examines a representative list of empirical examples of editorial processes, including the Gilgamesh Epic, the Book of the Dead, books of the Bible and Dead Sea Scrolls. He shows that redactors who can be identified by external evidence never confined themselves to adding new material. Rather, they simultaneously adjusted or duplicated parts of the text, incorporated material from elsewhere or shortened their source texts. Until now, the bulk of redaction critical studies in Europe adhere to the presupposition of textual or literary »growth« – assuming that multiple previous layers are to be found intact in the final texts. With Ziemer’s study, this model of growth is no longer tenable.

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Edited by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila

Al-Maqrīzī's (d. 845/1442) last work, al-Ḫabar ʿan al-bašar, was completed a year before his death. This volume, edited by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila, covers the history of pre-Islamic Iran from the Creation to the Parthians. Al-Maqrīzī's work shows how Arab historians integrated Iran into world history and how they harmonized various currents of historiography (Middle Persian historiography, Islamic sacred history, Greek and Latin historiography).

Among al-Ḫabar's sources is Kitāb Hurūšiyūš, the Arabic translation of Paulus Orosius' Historiarum adversum paganos libri vii. This source has only been preserved in one defective copy, and al-Maqrīzī's text helps to fill in some of its lacunae.

Sanctifying Texts, Transforming Rituals

Encounters in Liturgical Studies

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Edited by Paul van Geest, Marcel Poorthuis and Els Rose

Sanctifying Texts, Transforming Rituals: Encounters in Liturgical Studies explores the dynamics of Christian ritual practices in their relation to a broader cultural framework. The nineteen essays, written in honour of the liturgist Gerard A.M. Rouwhorst (Tilburg University), study liturgical developments in times of transition, in which religious and cultural changes set the development of worship practices in motion. The chapters in the first part (Texts) concentrate on the close connection between narrative texts and liturgical practice. In part two (Rituals), the focus shifts to the significance of liturgy as it expresses itself in rituals, and to the understanding of ritual acting. This section includes a variety of ritual aspects of liturgy, including the performance of the sacraments and the persons involved, as well as the relation between the liturgical ritual and material objects, such as images and relics. Section three (Encounters) crosses the borders of the discipline of liturgical studies. This final section of the book studies (ritual) relations between Christians and non-Christians through history, and includes contributions that study the dialogues between different liturgical languages and media.

Contributors are: Elizabeth Boddens Hosang, Paul Bradshaw, Harald Buchinger, Charles Caspers, Paul van Geest, Bert Groen, Martin Klöckener, Bart Koet, Clemens Leonhard, Ruben van Luijk, Gerard Lukken, Daniela Müller, Willemien Otten, Marcel Poorthuis, Paul Post, Ilia Rodov, Els Rose, Joshua Schwartz, Louis van Tongeren, and Nienke Vos.

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Edited by Malcolm Choat and Mariachiara Giorda

As senders of letters, copyists of literary texts, compilers of accounts, readers, and teachers, the monks of late antique Egypt articulated their interactions with their ascetic and secular environments via their role as authors, scribes, and owners of written text. This volume edited by Malcolm Choat and Maria Chiara Giorda examines the presence and practice of writing, modes of written communication, and the symbolic and spiritual value of the written word in monastic communities. Contributions cover evidence from papyri and inscriptions to literature transmitted in manuscripts, positioned within the shift in recent scholarship away from literature such as hagiography as a source of positivistic history, towards evidence that derives more directly from the monk or period in focus.

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Paul Bradshaw

Abstract

The tendency exists among scholars unconsciously to permit the conclusions that they want to be true to influence the way they read and interpret the data before them. This was clearly the case with those who accepted the identification of what had previously been called “The Egyptian Church Order” as the Apostolic Tradition composed by Hippolytus of Rome in the early third century. Nearly everything mentioned in it was assumed to be authentically of third-century origin rather than possibly a later interpolation. Inconsistencies or roughnesses in the received versions were attributed to copyists and translators rather than to the original, and any inconvenient obstacles to acceptance of its attribution were explained away rather than taken seriously as possible pointers to a different conclusion. The existence of major doublets in the text and of grammatical shifts were not seen as signs of more than one hand generally at work on the document. Nor were differences from the later liturgical practices of Rome, and especially its eucharistic prayer, thought sufficient to raise questions about its place of origin. It therefore stands as a warning not to allow one’s enthusiasm to reach favoured conclusions to override the need to examine the evidence dispassionately.


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Charles Caspers and Louis van Tongeren

Abstract

In the late Middle Ages, the major churches in the city of Utrecht had extensive feast calendars. Most of the days in the liturgical calendars, which mainly can be constructed from libri ordinarii, were dedicated to one or more saints or featured a vigil at least. It has been suggested that the many names of saints were chosen arbitrarily to fill up the calendar. It is most likely, however, that there was a clear reason in most cases for reserving a feast day for particular saints. We present a number of examples to illustrate that the choice to introduce a new feast day was often occasioned by the presence of a relic. In other words, the feast of celebrating a saint was linked to their physical presence. The acquisition of relics and the introduction of feast days was not an arbitrary matter but resulted from well-considered choices. Their liturgical calendar was the blazon for the canons of each chapter to show their own, saints-determined identity as a religious community. 


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Ilia M. Rodov

Abstract

The present article proposes a phenomenological analysis of shiviti plates bearing God’s name, set in front of the synagogue prayer leader. In the specimens exposed in modern Romanian synagogues, the Tetragrammaton dominates a hierarchic composition comprising texts (divine and angelic names, Kabbalistic sefirot, and didactic utterances) and images (the menorah, halo, heraldic devices, animals, and plants). The inscriptions act as ‘image-texts’ playing concurrent roles in both verbal and pictorial structures of the plates. The visual rendering of these shiviti evokes in the beholder a sense of meditative trance. They drove the worshipper’s communication with God’s presence along the path of mental visualisation of the letters of the divine name practiced by medieval Jewish esoteric scholars. In contrast to medieval Kabbalistic concentric diagrams that instruct the visionary’s meditation on God’s name and attributes, the shiviti images portray the products of visions. The phenomenon revealed sheds light on the unique role of visual art in establishing both the emotional mood and the intellectual modus of synagogue worship.


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Ruben van Luijk

Abstract

The black Mass is an understudied form of liturgy. This article sketches its history in five tableaus, including medieval rumours, seventeenth-century magical operations, eighteenth-and nineteenth century literary fiction, and culminating in the establishment of a ‘canonical’ black Mass liturgy in the modern Church of Satan. In addition, it discusses academic efforts to define its substance and tries to discover what place we can give the black Mass in the history of religion by applying the theories of Roy A. Rappaport.


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Gerard Lukken

Abstract

Three basic categories can be distinguished in human discourse: time, space and actants. This is also true for rituals. This article describes the tensions that are occurring during the period of transition of the liturgy after Vatican II, focusing particularly on the categories of time and space. Due to limitations of space, this article will not thematise the actants as such, but it will address them in passing as it discusses the categories of time and space. By contrast with the period of the post-Tridentine liturgy, which was characterised by a uniform, clerical and ‘geschichtslose’ (Jungmann) liturgy, the period after Vatican II saw the aggiornamento of the liturgy. It is marked by several tensions. First, there are extreme traditionalists, such as in the Society of St. Pius X, who reject all change. Then there is the strand of the neo-traditionalists, who wish to change the new liturgy on the principle of an organic development of the liturgy, by implementing a reform of the reform in line with organic development of the previous tradition. A third group consists of the reformers on basis of specific periods of the tradition, and a fourth of those who argue for further inculturation. The ideas of this last group are clarified on the basis of the vertical, immanent, horizontal and ‘near’ dimensions of the liturgy.


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Clemens Leonhard

Abstract

The essay discusses and rejects the presumption that Israel celebrated a ritual of covenant renewal at Shavuot in Second Temple times. Narrative texts like 2 Chronicles 15 and Jubilees 6 may associate the establishment of Israel’s covenant with God and the festival of Shavuot without any connection to a ritual. The Rule of the Community from Qumran hints at the performance of a ritual for the integration of new members which is geared to the special situation of its type of group and hence by no means applicable to throngs of pilgrims who come to the Temple in Jerusalem at Shavuot let alone to the whole people of Israel. Furthermore, the sources presume that the covenant between God and Israel is not abolished and does not require an annual renewal. As ancient Judaism did not know a ritual of covenant renewal, Christian texts (including Acts 2) cannot allude to such a ritual. Whatever the origins of the Christian festival of Pentecost, it does not continue or supersede a Jewish ritual of covenant renewal.