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Gerrit Bos

The terminology in medieval Hebrew medical literature (original works and translations) has been sorely neglected by modern research. Medical terminology is virtually missing from the standard dictionaries of the Hebrew language, including Ha-Millon he-ḥadash, composed by Abraham Even-Shoshan. Ben-Yehuda’s dictionary is the only one that contains a significant number of medical terms. Unfortunately, Ben-Yehuda’s use of the medieval medical texts listed in the dictionary’s introduction is inconsistent at best. The only dictionary exclusively devoted to medical terms, both medieval and modern, is that by A.M. Masie, entitled Dictionary of Medicine and Allied Sciences. However, like the dictionary by Ben-Yehuda, it only makes occasional use of the sources registered in the introduction and only rarely differentiates between the various medieval translators. Further, since Masie’s work is alphabetized according to the Latin or English term, it cannot be consulted for Hebrew terms. The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, which is currently being created by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, has not been taken into account consistently as it is not a dictionary in the proper sense of the word. Moreover, consultation of this resource suggests that it is generally deficient in medieval medical terminology. The Bar Ilan Responsa Project has also been excluded as a source, despite the fact that it contains a larger number of medieval medical terms than the Historical Dictionary. The present dictionary has two major objectives: 1) to map the medical terminology featured in medieval Hebrew medical works, in order to facilitate study of medical terms, especially those terms that do not appear in the existing dictionaries, and terms that are inadequately represented. 2) to identify the medical terminology used by specific authors and ranslators, to enable the identification of anonymous medical material.

Edited by Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas, Charles Burnett, Silke Ackermann and Ryan Szpiech

First published as a special issue of the journal Medieval Encounters (vol. 23, 2017), this volume, edited by Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas, Charles Burnett, Silke Ackermann, and Ryan Szpiech, brings together fifteen studies on various aspects of the astrolabe in medieval cultures. The astrolabe, developed in antiquity and elaborated throughout the Middle Ages, was used for calculation, teaching, and observation, and also served astrological and medical purposes. It was the most popular and prestigious of the mathematical instruments, and was found equally among practitioners of various sciences and arts as among princes in royal courts. By considering sources and instruments from Muslim, Christian, and Jewish contexts, this volume provides state-of-the-art research on the history and use of the astrolabe throughout the Middle Ages.

Contributors are Silke Ackermann, Emilia Calvo, John Davis, Laura Fernández Fernández, Miquel Forcada, Azucena Hernández, David A. King, Taro Mimura, Günther Oestmann, Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas, Sreeramula Rajeswara Sarma, Petra G. Schmidl, Giorgio Strano, Flora Vafea, and Johannes Thomann.

Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas

Abstract

The subject of this article is the treatise on the astrolabe ring (1492/1493) by Bonetus de Latis (Jacob ben Immanuel Provenzale). The treatise belongs to a four-centuries-old tradition of Jewish treatises on the astrolabe, written mainly in Hebrew and more rarely in Judaeo-Arabic, Judaeo-Spanish, Spanish, and Latin, and produced mostly in southern Europe and Turkey. Bonetus’s text is the second treatise written in Latin by a Jew, following Abraham ibn Ezra’s treatise on the planispheric astrolabe (Rouen 1154). My purpose is to compare it with other contemporary treatises on similar instruments and with a little earlier treatise on the astrolabe in Hebrew (by Eliyahu Cohen of Montalto, fifteenth century) in order to understand the contribution of this instrument and why the treatise was so highly regarded among Bonetus’s contemporaries. The instrument depicted in Bonetus’s booklet can be considered one of the last contributions of Jewish culture to the history of the astrolabe; these contributions stretch back to the first Hebrew writings on the instrument in the twelfth century. The Latin text and the English translation are included at the end of the article together with the Latin text and translation of the longest version of the introduction to the treatise. The contents of the treatise are exactly the same in all editions of Bonetus’s text, but there are two versions of the introduction and one is longer and more complete than the other. I have used both versions in my study, the one in the version printed, among others, in 1557 (shorter) and the one in the version of the treatise printed, among others, in 1507 (longer).

Johannes Thomann

Abstract

The main topic of this article comprises four unpublished Arabic texts on astrolabe-like instruments for showing the conditions of eclipses. They are the earliest technical descriptions of eclipse computers in any language. The first text is a treatise by ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā (ninth century) on a special astrolabe for lunar phases and eclipses. The second text is an anonymous redaction of the first text with some omissions and additions. The third text describes a similar instrument with a different design, which was invented by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Nasṭūlus al-Asṭurlābī in the year 893/894 CE. The fourth anonymous text describes a plate for a graphical solution of the size of a lunar eclipse. In the concluding part, later Arabic descriptions of eclipse computers are summarized, some traces of these texts on real astrolabes are mentioned, and finally some comparable medieval Latin texts are referred to. Four Appendices contain an edition of the Arabic texts and English translations.

Azucena Hernández

Abstract

The astrolabe of Petrus Raimundi, made in Barcelona in 1375, occupies a significant position in the set of medieval Spanish astrolabes with Latin inscriptions, as it is the only one signed and dated that has survived to the present day. A full description and study of the astrolabe is presented in the context of the support given to the manufacturing of scientific instruments by King Peter IV of Aragon. Although the astronomical and time reckoning features of the astrolabe are fully detailed, special attention is given to its artistic and decorative features. The relationships between Petrus Raimundi’s astrolabe and those manufactured in al-Andalus, the region under Islamic rule within the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages, are highlighted, as well as the links with astrolabe production in other European Christian kingdoms. The role played by astrolabes in medicine is considered and first steps are taken towards discovering the identity of Petrus Raimundi.

Josefina Rodríguez-Arribas, Charles Burnett and Silke Ackermann

Laura Fernández Fernández

Abstract

This article analyses the relationship between text and image in one of the most important scientific manuscripts commissioned by Alfonso X the Learned, El Libro del saber de astrologia (Ms. 156 BH Complutense University, Madrid). The main topic deals with the depiction of astrolabes in the four treatises devoted to this instrument in the codex, and the connexion established between the real astrolabes, the depicted ones, and the written sources used by the Alfonsine team.