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Emmett contributes to missional pentecostal historiography through bringing a pre-eminent figure in early British Pentecostalism into the limelight. He shows how Pentecostalism in Belgian Congo was pioneered by W.F.P. Burton alongside local agency. Central to Burton’s contradictory and complex personality was a passionate desire to see the emancipation of humankind from the spiritual powers of darkness believing only Spirit-empowered local agency would enduringly prove effective.

Burton’s faith believed for Spirit intervention in church communities converting lives, bringing physical healing and transforming regions. In the maelstrom following Congolese Independence, Burton’s belief in his own brand of indigenisation made him an outlier even among Pentecostals. Burton’s pentecostal faith engendered an idealism which frustratingly conflicted with those not sharing it in the way he pursued it. This book thus serves Pentecostals and historians by clarifying Burton’s ideals and revealing the reasons for his frustrations.
Theo-political Reflections on Contemporary Politics in Ecumenical Conversation
Volume Editors: Alexei Bodrov and Stephen M. Garrett
Theology and the Political: Theo-political Reflections on Contemporary Politics in Ecumenical Conversation, edited by Alexei Bodrov and Stephen M. Garrett, is the fruit of Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant conversations from East and West concerning the retrieval of theological discourse for political praxis, theo-political structural analysis of secularity/post-secularity, and distinct political engagement from varying Christian traditions that not only offer political critique but criticism of its particular tradition.

This edited volume is animated by the motif of political action as witness in a missional key and makes a unique interdisciplinary contribution to the field of political theology that invites further reflection on the gospel instantiated in various cultural contexts in light of the boundary-crossing nature of mission and theological discourse.
Volume Editors: Hélène Vu Thanh and Ines G. Županov
Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries) is a collection of twelve articles focusing on missionary economic practices, often perceived as an important tool in their spiritual and missionary endeavours, but also raising controversies in Europe and in the overseas missions. Missionaries, just like merchants and other investors, sought the most profitable ventures and tapped into transcontinental flow of capital during the first globalisation. All the chapters in this volume address the question of Catholic missionary economy in the early modern period by looking into concrete cases of the opening, financing, growth and preservation of Christian missions and related institutions such as churches, colleges and other permanent endowments in Asia, Europe and Latin America.
In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)

Abstract

This article examines the crucial position that San Hermenegildo college held in the Jesuits’ financial system. The Seville college went bankrupt in 1645, and the ensuing drawn-out legal suits brought by its creditors provide a precious archive resource for analyzing its economic underpinnings. San Hermenegildo became a major actor in the Seville credit market during the 1630s. The lucrative Atlantic trade it conducted increased its borrowing capacity, which it used to consolidate its landholdings in the region. The scheme developed by the college procurator, assisted by his financial intermediaries, throws light on a circular economy linking Europe and the Americas, which was very profitable until the college’s reputation was destroyed by the town’s inhabitants.

In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the Jesuits’ economic activities in Japan, and more particularly on their investment in the silk trade between China and Japan led by the Macau-based Portuguese. Their role as cultural mediators between the Portuguese and Japanese merchants is analysed, showing how, instead of acting as mere go-betweens or interpreters, the missionaries soon found themselves in the position of negotiating transactions and arbitrating disputes. The Jesuits were evidently uncomfortable with the situation, but as this chapter demonstrates, it might have been an inevitable corollary of their rising religious, social and political influence in Nagasaki––a fishing village which under their helm quickly turned into a regional trade hub, thanks to the Macau trade ship’s yearly visit. However, their increasingly prominent and equivocal role in the organisation of trade contributed to their eventual expulsion from the country: while it did help them build a strong Christian base around Nagasaki, it also earned them enemies among Japanese merchants and officials, and worse, it fed the Japanese leadership’s growing concern that the missionaries could be laying the groundwork for a European invasion.

In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)

Abstract

As it is widely known, Jesuit missionaries in Japan received the donation of the port of Nagasaki in 1580, eventually lost in 1587 to the central ruler of the country, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. However, that was not the only piece of land they owned at some point in Japan. From the first donation received in Yamaguchi in 1552 to the loss of everything they had in 1614, Jesuits became a somewhat considerable political force by the 1580s. By rehabilitating a list of patrons of the mission compiled in 1677 in Macao, my goal is to show how Japan Jesuits became landowners and benefitted from taxation and food production. Landholding gave them access to labour on the form of kuyaku (a type of corvée), some presence in Japanese politics, and economic power. Nevertheless, land ownership led them to unforeseen directions, as when they became a target of the reforms promoted by Hideyoshi in the late 1580s. Jesuit landholding in Japan also shows how missionaries adapted to local circumstances by emulating regional Buddhist organizations in their relations with local warlords. Far from being political masterminds, the Japan Jesuits struggled to acquire financial independence, and land ownership was one of the many forms they resorted to in order to guarantee their survival.

In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)

Abstract

The financing of Jesuit colleges and missions in France and Italy by the nobility is the focus of this chapter. It investigates the terms of financial support by the laity, studying the nature and the extent of the capitalizations in favor of these residences or colleges and their effects on their financial bases. One of the conclusions in this chapter is that the financial relations between the noble founders and the Society of Jesus were conceived as a long term links, well beyond the initial donation, entailing a form of lasting dependency of the Jesuit establishments on these lay investors. These Jesuit institutions were therefore entangled in a web of financial constraints. Accordingly, by simultaneously fulfilling the worldly needs of the order and the desires of powerful noble investors, the Society of Jesus integrated the circuits of the local economy and became a major stakeholder of a broader financial network.

In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)

Abstract

As an analysis of missionary economies, this contribution sheds new light on the question of whether missionaries in Asia became integrated into local societies. In the first part, the paper examines the material and symbolic importance of the funds that the Roman Curia and the order of the Discalced Carmelites sent to Persia before turning to the normative restrictions, which these institutions attempted to impose on the economic operations of the missionaries. In the second part the focus shifts to Persia and the Persian Gulf. The analysis reveals how missionaries integrated into local society and how this called into question the universal aspirations of the papacy. Missionaries faced with the chronic underfunding of the missions responded to local demands for worldly and spiritual services to secure the long-term survival of their endeavour. The example of the Discalced Carmelites also demonstrates that convents in Persia needed much more than to embed themselves in local societies; they needed to be integrated into trans-local trade networks in South Asia. Their close ties to Armenian merchants, Indian financial specialists, and the East India Companies shed new light on yet another set of actors who grew increasingly dependent on processes of globalization.

In: Trade and Finance in Global Missions (16th-18th Centuries)