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The Yearbook of Chinese Theology is an international, ecumenical and fully peer-reviewed annual that covers Chinese Christianity in the areas of Biblical Studies, Church History, Systematic Theology, Practical Theology, and Comparative Religions. It offers genuine Chinese theological research previously unavailable in English, by top scholars in the study of Christianity in China.

The 2019 volume highlights the five-disciplines of Karl Barth and Sino-Christian theology and its guest editor is Thomas Xutong Qu. Further contributions are from: Paulos Huang and Thomas Xutong Qu, Wai Luen Kwok, Xin Leng, Shi-Min Lu, Quan Li, G. Wright Doyle, Jin Li and Li Ma, Liang Hong, Liang Hong, Shao Kai Tseng, Xiangchen Sun.

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Denise A. Austin and Shane Clifton

There is evidence of the charismata in operation in Australia as early as the 1850s, and divine healing even became a topic of public debate in the media during the 1870s. By 1902, small groups were holding Pentecostal prayer meetings in Victoria. In this chapter, we critically evaluate how Australian Pentecostalism has evolved from a small, fragmented sect into one of the most influential Christian movements in the world. From the ambiguity of healing ministries and its ambivalent attitude toward female leadership, to the fervour of revivalism and fiercely autonomous structures, this movement has a uniquely Australian character. There have been significant Australian Indigenous contributions, as well as overseas missionary drives that align with the nation’s multicultural aspirations. The charismatic renewal propelled Pentecostals into a greater engagement with the broader community, leading to a rebranding of Australian Christianity that captured the imagination of the world. Australian Pentecostal leaders have shown themselves to be remarkably innovative and intuitive. In so doing they have contributed to the shape of the broader church in Australia, and Pentecostalism globally.

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Denise A. Austin and Paul W. Lewis

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Denise A. Austin and Lim Yeu Chuen

There is evidence of the charismata in Malaysia (Malaya prior to 1963) as early as the 1870s, and later with Azusa Street Mission workers visiting in 1907. Over the course of the 20th century, Pentecostalism spread so rapidly that, by 1985, Pentecostals made up 75 percent of the Christian population. Today there are around 206,000 Pentecostal adherents, and Malaysia boasts one of the largest charismatic church complexes in Southeast Asia. This chapter argues that there are three key reasons for the growth of Pentecostalism in Malaysia. First, the indigenising and transnationalising tendencies of Pentecostalism benefited early pioneers who migrated from China and Ceylon, as well as missionaries who came from Great Britain, Europe and the United States of America. World War ii dealt a severe blow but freedoms of the postwar era fostered a revival atmosphere through charismatic leadership. The catalyst for post-independence growth was the organisational acumen of Pentecostal leaders who opened training colleges, led church planting drives, and established megachurches. The 1970s to the 1980s period was a melting pot for the emergence of many independent Pentecostal and charismatic movements. Finally, fresh waves of revival have brought more of a focus on contemporary engagement and diversity.

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Darin Clements, Ken Huff and Nyotxay

Despite lacking the kind of dramatic revivals which gave birth to Pentecostal and charismatic movements in other Asian nations, Pentecostal movements in Cambodia and Laos have experienced remarkable growth since 1990, having especially benefitted from broad international efforts and support of both traditional and new missionary-sending nations. This chapter begins with an outline of early missionary endeavours, then explores some of the devastating challenges of the 20th century, which led to the suppression but ultimate rebirth of the church. The development of the Pentecostal movement included a few major public outreach events by international ministries, particularly in Cambodia. Furthermore, cooperative international efforts across denominations have been a long-standing feature of Christian work in these two nations. Pentecostal ministerial training has been an important way to spread the gospel, opening opportunities for church planting drives by groups and individuals. Community development programmes have also been a significant feature of the Pentecostal movement in both of these countries since 1990. In the final section of the chapter areas for future research are suggested.

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Edited by Denise A. Austin, Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis

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Connie Au

Early Western forms of Pentecostalism embraced Holiness teaching and combined it with the emphases of baptism in the Holy Spirit evidenced by tongues. The Hong Kong Pentecostal Mission (previously Apostolic Faith Mission) grew out of the Congregationalist tradition and the Latter Rain message of the Azusa Street Revival, which was brought to Hong Kong by zealous missionaries. It was then developed by Chinese elites and local Pentecostal believers. Chinese leaders welcomed foreign missionaries but formed solid independent governance systems. The Hong Kong Pentecostal Mission distributed its Pentecostal Truths publications widely in Hong Kong, China and the broader diaspora. Although some members spread the Pentecostal message to Heungshan, they did not impose a dominant role in the development of the two local churches, but allowed the local people to self-govern and self-support the church, and to self-propagate the gospel message to the country people. It did not hold a hostile nationalistic attitude towards western missionaries, but continued to welcome any collaborations as long as they genuinely wanted to serve.

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Denise A. Austin, Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis

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Denise A. Austin and Masakazu Suzuki

Even as early as the Azusa Street revival, there were reports of Japanese xenolalia spoken, and Japanese pioneer converts became well-known for their Pentecostal experientialism. This chapter explores the contributions of vibrant and effective Japanese leaders to the origins, growth and maturation of Pentecostalism in Japan. Foreign and indigenous ministry programmes consolidated these early beginnings through training successful church planters, including some notable women. Congregations endured the devastation of World War ii, which saw the loss of many congregants, pastors, properties, and communities. Reconstructing Japanese Pentecostalism was then undertaken through unified rebuilding programmes of the allied occupation. Piecing together the remains of former institutions, Pentecostal leaders rallied together to encourage unified efforts. Pentecostal communities also encouraged a diversity of denominations by embracing organisations and individual missionaries expelled from Communist China. Finally, international renewal influences paved the way for contemporary expressions of worship and provided a platform for a more unified contemporary Pentecostalism in Japan. Thus, Japan is in the current state of both a realisation of plateaued growth yet with a hopeful future.

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Edited by Denise A. Austin, Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis