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Author: Moshe Sharon
Editor: Michiel Meeusen
This volume provides a set of in-depth case studies about the role of questions and answers (Q&A) in ancient Greek medical writing from its Hippocratic beginnings up to, and including, Late Antiquity. The use of Q&A formulas is widely attested in ancient Greek medical texts, casting an intriguing light on its relevance for the medical art at large, and for ancient medical practice, education, and research in specific (diagnostics, didactics, dialectics). The book aims to break new grounds by exploring, for the first time, the wide complexity of this phenomenon while introducing a coherent approach. In so doing, it not only covers highly specialized medical treatises but also non-canonical authors and texts, including anonymous papyrus fragments and collections of problems.
Aramaic, South Arabian, Coptic, Arabic and Judeo-Arabic Documents
Volume Editors: Andreas Kaplony and Daniel Potthast
The renaissance of Arabic Papyrology has become obvious by the founding of the International Society for Arabic Papyrology (ISAP) at the Cairo conference (2002), and by its subsequent conferences in Granada (2004), Alexandria (2006), Vienna (2009), Tunis/Carthage (2012), Munich (2014), and Berlin (2018). This volume collects papers given at the Munich conference, including editions of previously unpublished Coptic, Arabic and Judeo-Arabic documents, as well as historical studies based on documentary evidence from Achaemenid Bactria, Ancient South-Arabia, and Early Islamic, Fāṭimid and Mamlūk Egypt.

Contributors: Anne Boud'hors; Ursula Bsees; Peter T. Daniels; Maher A. Eissa; Andreas Kaplony; W. Matt Malczycki; Craig Perry; Daniel Potthast; Peter Stein; Naïm Vanthieghem; Oded Zinger 
Papers in Memory of Sara B. Aleshire from the Second North American Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy
In Greek Epigraphy and Religion Emily Mackil and Nikolaos Papazarkadas bring together a series of papers first presented at a special session of the Second North American Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy (Berkeley 2016). That session was dedicated to the memory of Sara B. Aleshire, one of the leading Greek epigraphists of the twentieth century. The volume at hand includes a combination of previously unpublished inscriptions, overlooked epigraphical documents, and well known inscribed texts that are reexamined with fresh eyes and approaches. The relevant documents cover a wide geographical range, including Athens and Attica, the Peloponnese, Epirus, Thessaly, the Aegean islands, and Egypt. This collection ultimately explores the insights provided by epigraphical texts into the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Greeks, but also revisits critically some entrenched doctrines in the field of Greek religion.
Author: Gaëlle Tallet
Que viennent faire les rayons solaires du dieu grec Hélios sur le front d’un dieu crocodile égyptien ? Cette question est au point de départ d’une enquête au cœur de la plasticité du système polythéiste de l’Égypte gréco-romaine. Parcourant le labyrinthe des diverses communautés et croyances grecques et égyptiennes, Gaëlle Tallet utilise le fil d’Ariane de la production des images religieuses, réponses à de nouveaux besoins et de nouvelles perceptions du divin, et ouvre les portes des ateliers où elles ont été conçues, commandées et façonnées. La Splendeur des dieux propose une réévaluation du rôle des clergés et des artistes indigènes dans l’élaboration d’un hellénisme proprement égyptien, qui leur a permis de promouvoir et préserver des traditions millénaires.

Why are the rays of the Greek god Helios on the forehead of a crocodile-headed Egyptian deity? Navigating the maze of Greek and Egyptian communities and creeds, Gaëlle Tallet investigates the plasticity of material culture in the polytheistic context of Graeco-Roman Egypt. Using the Ariadne’s thread of the manufacturing of new images, suitable to new needs and new understandings of the divine, La Splendeur des dieux opens the doors of the workshops where these images were designed, ordered and crafted. Tallet offers a full re-appraisal of the cultural balance of powers in Graeco-Roman Egypt, depicting the indigenous clergies and artists as integratedactors of an Egyptian Hellenicity that helped promote and preserve their millenaries-old traditions.
Volume Editors: Nicole Belayche and Francesco Massa
Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity aims to fill a gap in the study of mystery cults in Graeco-Roman Antiquity by focusing on images for investigating their ritual praxis. Nicole Belayche and Francesco Massa have gathered experts on visual language in order to illuminate cultic rituals renowned for both their “mysteries” and their images. This book tackles three interrelated questions. Focusing on the cult of Dionysus, it analyses whether, and how, images are used to depict mystery cults. The relationship between historiography and images of mystery cults is considered with a focus on the Mithraic and Isiac cults. Finally, turning to the cults of Dionysus and the Mother of the Gods, this work shows how depictions of specific cultic objects succeed in expressing mystery cults.
In: Ancient Greek Medicine in Questions and Answers


This chapter examines the interaction between authors and readers within the medical-naturalist collection of the so-called Supplementary Problems (2nd century CE, or later), with the aim of reaching an understanding of how this compilatory work may have been read and evaluated by imperial readers. Like other medical-naturalist collections of problemata, the Supplementary Problems has been relatively neglected by scholarship, not least because it lacks clear contextual information regarding its origins and readership. Its purpose is surmised to be didactic, but as yet no attempt has been made to address questions pertaining to its function and readership in a systematic fashion. Accordingly, the chapter seeks to track the full gamut of author-reader relationships within the Supplementary Problems, by focussing on first-person statements, apostrophes to the reader, and strategies of explanation that point to a shared background of knowledge between reader and author, or, on the contrary, suggest the author occupies a privileged position, in terms of his command of medical-naturalist knowledge, in comparison to his envisaged reader. As the discussion shows, while didacticism certainly pervades the collection as a whole, its envisaged readers cannot in all cases be securely identified as students of medicine. Instead, we need to place the Supplementary Problems’ formation in a cultural context where medical-naturalist knowledge was exchanged and shared not only in the medical school, but also in other settings (such as the symposium and oral epideixis).

In: Ancient Greek Medicine in Questions and Answers
Author: Isabella Bonati


The aim of this contribution is to analyse some specific aspects of catechisms on papyrus mainly devoted to individual diseases, by focusing more precisely on the definition of the pathology and the technical terminology employed to express it. After providing a general introduction to papyri preserving medical catechisms, the chapter will illustrate the divergences and similarities in the definition of identical medical topics by means of selected specimina. This will be done between both papyrus catechisms and medical literature, especially compared to the tradition of the definitiones and quaestiones medicinales, and among different catechisms on papyrus. Finally, the investigation of technical vocabulary and certain expressions used to define pathologies and medical procedures in the papyri, but unparalleled in medical authors, can provide interesting insights into the language of medical question-and-answer texts. This raises the innovative question as to whether there was a sort of lexical ‘particularisation’ in the catechistic genre, maybe influenced by the concrete nature of the context in which the erôtapokriseis on papyrus were copied and used, be it for didactic purposes in medical education or during the exercise of the doctor’s profession.

In: Ancient Greek Medicine in Questions and Answers
Author: Nicola Reggiani


This chapter presents a general overview of the Greek medical papyri in question-and-answer format, focusing in particular on their layout and on the graphical strategies deployed by the ancient scribes in highlighting the main articulations of the texts. Discussion will then move from the ancient sources to their modern digital representation, where the current strategies to encode such ancient layout and graphical devices will be presented and analysed, pinpointing their fundamental relevance in our comprehension of this peculiar textual typology.

In: Ancient Greek Medicine in Questions and Answers