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Ancient and Modern Perspectives on Freedom of Speech
Freedom of speech is a fundamental right in many societies, yet also highly contested. As a right, it can only be appreciated if its historical development is taken into account. Parrhesia offers case studies in freedom of speech, its understanding and exercise throughout history. They enable researchers and policymakers alike to gain an awareness of the complexities, challenges and benefits of freedom of speech. The cases that have been selected are from the field of religion and theology, yet exemplary in character and able to shed light on freedom of speech in other parts of society.

Contributors are: Leon van den Broeke, Jan Krans, Silvia Castelli, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Manfred Lang, Bastian Lemitz, Nils Neumann, Kyriakoula Papademetriou, Dirk Jan Schoon, and Peter-Ben Smit.
An Edict for the Caracallan Empire
Author: Alex Imrie
In The Antonine Constitution, Alex Imrie approaches the famous edict of AD 212 from numerous angles, offering an assessment of its rationale that is rooted in the dynamic period of the early third century. Controversial since its discovery, it is depicted here as a keystone in Caracalla’s attempt to revolutionise the public image of the Severan dynasty after murdering his brother.

There is an inherent paradox between the apparently progressive nature of the edict, and the volatile emperor responsible for it. The enigma is only heightened by a dearth of ancient evidence relating to the legislation. By combining literary and material evidence with the surviving papyrological record, Alex Imrie shows that Caracalla’s rationale is best understood in an embedded context.
The four Livres des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l’Université d’Orléans (1444-1602) are a unique source for the history of European universities. The quarterly reports of the presidents of the association of law students allow us to reconstitute in detail the everyday life of students from the Germanic countries during the Renaissance. From the published first , second and third Livres between 1444-1587 (same authors, Brill 1971-2013) it appears that the alumni got key positions in Church and State in their homelands. The reports of the fourth Livre for the years 1587-1602 describe the fortunes of the German Nation and the University and offer a unique look at the role of Orleans and its graduates in the religious wars and the growing confessionalisation of Europe.
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602
In: Quatrième Livre des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l'ancienne Université d'Orléans 1587-1602