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International trade is conducted mainly under the rules of the World Trade Organization. Its non-discrimination rules are of fundamental importance. In essence, they require WTO members not to discriminate amongst products of other WTO members in trade matters (the most favoured- nation rule) and, subject to permitted market-access limitations, not to discriminate against products of other WTO members in favour of domestic products (the national treatment rule). The interpretation of these rules is quite difficult. Their reach is potentially so broad that it has been felt that they should be limited by a number of exceptions, some of which also present interpretative difficulties. Indeed, one of the principal conundrums faced by WTO dispute settlement is how to strike the appropriate balance between the rules and exceptions. Davey explores the background and justification for the non-discrimination rules and examines how the rules and the exceptions have been interpreted in WTO dispute settlement. He gives considerable attention to whether the exceptions give sufficient discretion to WTO members to pursue their legitimate non-trade policy goals.
Author: Guiguo Wang
The World Trade Organization (“WTO”) resulted from globalization, through which national law provisions are internationalized and international norms are domesticated. The WTO does not permit reservation by its members who are obliged to ensure the compliance of their laws, policies and other measures. Once a member is found to have violated its obligations, it must rectify the non-compliance measures to avoid retaliation. The quasi-automatic approval procedure of the WTO Dispute Settlement Body has proved to be effective in ensuring the compliance by members and consistency of interpretation of the WTO Agreement. As the multilateral trade institution covers a wide range of sectors from trade in goods and services, and intellectual property to investment and the measures of the members include laws and regulations, administrative decisions and judicial rulings, the impacts of the WTO on the members’ legal systems are hugely profound and long lasting. In some cases, for the purpose of joining the WTO, the legal systems of the members concerned have been through significant changes.
This monograph considers the ramifications of the legal regime that governs transborder capital flows. This regime consists principally of a network of some 3,000 investment treaties, as well as a growing body of arbitral decisions. Professor Alvarez contends that the contemporary international investment regime should no longer be described as a
species of territorial “empire” imposed by rich capital exporters on capital importers. He examines the evolution of investment treaties and investor-State jurisprudence constante and identifies the connections between these and general trends within public international law, including the increased resort to treaties (“treatification”), growing risks to the law’s consistency (“fragmentation”), and the proliferation of forms of international adjudication (“judicialization”). Professor Alvarez also considers whether the regime’s efforts to “balance” the needs of non-State investors and sovereigns ought to be characterized as “global administrative law," as a form of “constitutionalization,” or as an increasingly human-rights-centred enterprise.
Also available as an e-book

Le droit de l’arbitrage, plus encore que le droit international privé, se prête à une réflexion de philosophie du droit. Les notions, essentiellement philosophiques, de volonté et de liberté sont au coeur de la matière. La liberté des parties de préférer aux juridictions étatiques une forme privée de règlement des différends, de choisir leur juge, de forger la procédure qui leur paraît la plus appropriée, de déterminer les règles de droit applicables au différend, quitte à ce qu’il s’agisse de normes autres que celles d’un système juridique donné, la liberté des arbitres de se prononcer sur leur propre compétence, de fixer le déroulement de la procédure et, dans le silence des parties, de choisir les normes applicables au fond du litige, soulèvent autant de questions de légitimité.
Le présent ouvrage s’attache à identifier les postulats philosophiques qui sous-tendent la matière, à montrer leur profonde cohérence et les conséquences pratiques qui en découlent dans la résolution des grands contentieux du commerce international.
This collection of essays offers a precise and evocative image of a remarkable evolution in concepts and practices within international economic law, which may be a preparatory phase on the way towards a true law of globalisation.


Cette collection d’études présente une vision détaillée de l’évolution subie par les concepts et pratiques du droit économique international, évolution qui pourrait constituer une phrase préparatoire vers un véritable droit de la mondialisation.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 26.