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Abstract

Hunting trophies are shown to be undergoing socialization in photos. They are no longer personal souvenirs that serve a purely introspective function for the individual. Hunting photos are discussed, critiqued, and conspicuously displayed across online and print platforms. They are shared between hunters and lately also between hunters and the public. Criteria for good hunting photos reflect the changing modality and times in which photos are shared. The ways hunters stage, compose, and manipulate their hunting tableaux evolve to address external and internal pressures regarding their representation. This evolution is illustrated in qualitative interviews with hunting magazine editors and hunting photographers in Sweden, as well as review of 320 hunting magazine covers from 1960s to today. To this new class of hunter-artists, the presentation of the quarry as object or sovereign wildlife changes the hunting tableau and also responds to contested ideals of authenticity in nature.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

This study tested a tool that could reveal children’s attitudes toward unpopular nonhuman animals through a content analysis of constructed clipart scenes arranged and described by elementary students. Pictures were analyzed for clipart choices, pictorial themes, themes of attitudes toward nonhuman animals, and other components of verbalized statements. Most (79%) students created scenes showing humans standing surrounded by animals. Boys made more statements concerning weapons, traps, or poison and about performing violent actions against animals than girls. Girls made more statements about liking animals than boys. Ecologistic, naturalistic, humanistic, moralistic, and aesthetic themes (displaying “feminine” attitudes) were more common in the female participants’ verbalizations, while scientistic, utilitarian, dominionistic, negativistic, and neutralistic themes (displaying “masculine” attitudes) occurred more frequently in the male explanations. Both genders exhibited similar levels of “feminine” attitudes, but boys exhibited more “masculine” attitudes than girls.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

This article investigates the construction of instruments and techniques employed in the management of Norwegian wolves since the early 1980s by construing the tools as technologies of government. The proliferation of such instruments and techniques, constructed to effect protection in practice, has transformed Norwegian wolves in significant ways. Unlike the historic population, which often went through large variations in numbers and was spread throughout large parts of the country, the current population of wolves is regulated to stay at a fixed number and within a relatively small wolf-zone. The current population is also highly amenable to detailed government; the number and location of the wolves, and even the genetic composition of the population over the longer term, can be reconfigured in detail. The article further argues that the general proliferation of governmental technologies in biodiversity conservation has meant similar transformations of a great number of endangered organisms.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

This study aims to increase understanding of whether spiritual dimensions of nature experiences are connected to sustainability by examining the relationship between yoga, sensory awareness, and pro-environmental behavior among comparative groups of yoga and non-yoga practitioners in South Florida. According to affective and perceptual theories of human environmental care, the heightened perception of and attention to one’s natural environment through enhanced sensory awareness that yoga practitioners describe experiencing should engender a closer inclination to nature and its protection, as measured by pro-environmental acts. South Florida yoga practitioners describe increased sensory awareness after yoga, yet they practiced common natural resources protective actions like recycling and reducing fossil fuel use no more frequently than their non-yoga counterparts. Practitioners’ other yoga-based and meditation-enhanced spiritual experiences like non-evaluation and non-attachment to physical and mental phenomena, as well as yoga’s inward self-focus on the physical body, may divert aspirants from proactive environmental behavior.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology
In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

Attitudes toward ecological consumption can trigger environmentally responsible intentions and behaviors. Understanding how ecological messages can influence attitudes is essential to mitigate climate change. This paper analyzes how religious affiliation (or lack of), can influence attitudes toward green advertising and explores the role of religious affiliation in the effectiveness of ecological messages. The findings indicate that religious affiliation has an influence on the degree of effectiveness of each message. So, green communications can be a useful tool to persuade atheists to develop more sustainable attitudes when they are exposed the benefits that can be achieved with green behavior. However, persuasive environmental messages, in general, do not generate major changes of attitude among Catholics. Businesses, NGO s, states, educators and society in general should acknowledge that environmental discourses fostering sustainable behavior. Furthermore, messages depicting the problems of environmental behavior have no repercussion on atheists and little on Catholics.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

This editorial perspective attempts to explain the recent rise of Jair Bolsonaro to the presidency in Brazil and to characterise, at least in a preliminary fashion, the nature of the new regime one year into Bolsonaro’s rule. The core argument is that Bolsonaro represents a weak and internally-fragmented far-right regime, with unenthusiastic and declining popular support. Dominant sections of international and domestic capital operating in Brazil lent Bolsonaro electoral backing as a last way out of economic and political crisis, but so far, the new government has failed in sufficiently guaranteeing their most important interests and the markets are withdrawing approval. Themes covered include the political paralysis of the new regime, the social bases of Bolsonarismo, the nature of the current state–capital relation, and the role of evangelical Pentecostalism in far-right Brazilian politics today. A biographical portrait of Bolsonaro is provided, alongside a mapping of the dominant factions of the new administration. Finally, an assessment of the economic outlook in Brazil is developed, together with speculation as to the likely political consequences in the short- to medium-term future.

In: Historical Materialism

Abstract

Following Lynn White’s thesis of 1967 which indicted some Christian values for the current ecological crisis, many studies have been conducted on the connection between religion and environment/ecological crisis. These studies have sought to know whether religious beliefs and values influence environmental/climate change perceptions of people. However, while these studies have been geographically biased, their results have remained inconclusive. This study therefore examined this age-long debate with evidence from Nigeria. The study involved 30 church leaders drawn from Catholic, Anglican and Pentecostal churches in five geographical zones in Nigeria. The data was analyzed using descriptive analytical method. Findings show that religious values/schemas in forms of Eschatological/End-Time beliefs, Dominion beliefs, Theological fatalism, Pessimism etc. influenced climate change perceptions among the church leaders. The study also found that religious affiliation and theology mattered with respect to the influence of some religious beliefs. The implications of findings for the research on religion-environmental/climate change connection are discussed.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

Mitchell (2016) proposes shared stories and religious background are unimportant to hiker spiritual experience on John Muir National Trail, USA. This study analyzes surveys from 265 volunteer day-hikes in three settings: urban, suburban natural area, and wildland; representing three modes of hiking: goal-directed, nature observation, and meditative. Overall, setting produced more statistically significant differences (22 of 25) among locale descriptors than the mode did (3 of 25). Sacred was more closely associated with descriptors of lack of human presence, than those related to biodiversity. Association of the sacred with higher elevations and mountain wildlands rather than with wetlands implies a pre-existing shared story. Nature oriented and meditative hiking accentuated perception of values, such as educational, humbling, sacred and wondrous, providing evidence that religious practice influences hiker perception. Suburban natural areas, which are more accessible to urban residents than wildlands, received ratings competing with wildlands in terms of personal benefits.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology