Theology and Society is the most comprehensive study of Islamic intellectual and religious history, focusing on Muslim theology. With its emphasis on the eighth and ninth centuries CE, it remains the most detailed prosopographical study of the early phase of the formation of Islam. Originally published in German between 1991 and 1995,
Theology and Society is a monument of scholarship and a unique scholarly enterprise which has stood the test of the time as an unparalleled reference work.
The volume consists of a General Index, an Index of Names, an Index of Works and an Index of Other Sources, and a separate Bibliography.
Australian Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements: Arguments from the Margins, Rocha, Hutchinson and Openshaw argue that Australia has made and still makes important contributions to how Pentecostal and charismatic Christianities have developed worldwide. This edited volume fills a critical gap in two important scholarly literatures. The first is the Australian literature on religion, in which the absence of the charismatic and Pentecostal element tends to reinforce now widely debunked notions of Australia as lacking the religious tendencies of old Europe. The second is the emerging transnational literature on Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. This book enriches our understanding not only of how these movements spread worldwide but also how they are indigenised and grow new shoots in very diverse contexts.
Thomas D. Hamm (Earlham College) argues that a self-conscious, liberal Quakerism emerged in North America between 1790 and 1920. It had three characteristics. The first was a commitment to liberty of conscience. The second was pronounced doubts about orthodox beliefs, such as the divinity of Christ. Finally, liberal Friends saw themselves as holding beliefs fully consistent with early Quakerism. Stirrings appeared as early as the 1790s. Hicksite Friends in the 1820s, although perceiving themselves as traditionalists, manifested all of these characteristics. When other Hicksites took such stances in even more radical directions after 1830, however, bitter divisions ensued. Orthodox Friends were slower to develop liberal thought. It emerged after 1870, as higher education became central to the Gurneyite branch of Orthodox Quakerism, and as some Gurneyites responded to influences in the larger society, and to the changes introduced by the advent of revivalism, by embracing modernist Protestantism.
This work brings the fields of Christian theologies of atonement and reconciliation and Liberal Quaker theology into dialogue, and lays the foundation for developing an original Liberal Quaker reconciliation theology. This dialogue focuses specifically on the metaphorical language employed to describe the relationship of interdependence between humans and God, which both traditions hold as integral to their conceptions of human and divine existence. It focuses on these areas: the sin of human division and exclusion; atonement and reunification of humans and God as a response to sin; and the metaphors Liberal Quaker use to describe this interdependent relationship, specifically the metaphor of Light. This unique approach develops an original model of reconciliatory interdependence between humans and God that is rooted in both Christological and Universalist Liberal Quaker metaphorical and theological categories and utilizes the Liberal Quaker language of God as interdependent Light towards a new theology.
The tradition that God raised Jesus from the dead has been challenged by the revival of two hypotheses – a) that the post-resurrection appearances may be explained on the basis of bereavement hallucinations on the part of the disciples, and b) that, on the basis of a comparison with parapsychological literature, a paranormal explanation may be possible. After a brief critique of the traditional evangelical approach to the relevant New Testament texts, the present article focuses on an assessment of these alternative hypotheses, concluding that, although parapsychological literature offers some interesting comparisons with the post-resurrection appearances, the bereavement hallucination hypothesis shows more promise as a viable alternative to the traditional view.
In this paper, land will be interpreted as space, which, together with time, carries out the world in which to live, namely, to exist (Dasein). One is never alone in these time-spaces (Mitsein), as one shares these time-spaces with others, and therefore these time-spaces are conflictual or antagonistic. The main reason for this antagonism is the role that power plays in the carrying out of a particular time-space. The play between time and space can also be interpreted as metaphysics: Zeit-Spiel-Raum. As there are different and competing metaphysical constructions, these time-spaces will be riddled with antagonism. Capitalism, with its focus on private property, is one possible metaphysical system that carries out a certain time-space, yet there are other metaphysical systems which carry out a more communal time-space. These competing metaphysical systems often cannot be reconciled, which then forces the question: on what basis, or with which criteria would one discern between these different time-spaces – which brings one into the field of ethics and consequently justice and its inverse injustice. The paper will seek to propose a trans-fictional praxis as an agonistic approach to these competing and antagonistic metaphysical worlds, who are seeking to determine and control the time-spaces.
In “The Difference Between a Genius and an Apostle,” Kierkegaard deploys the figure of Paul as the archetype of an apostle, who “does not develop in such a way as he gradually becomes what he is [according to potentiality].” This claim would seem at odds with much contemporary Pauline scholarship, which understands Paul’s writings as an ad hoc, developing, quasi-guerrilla sort of theology. While this may be the case, Kierkegaard’s essay is nonetheless deserving of attention, for it highlights an issue that arguably remains a tacit foundation of Pauline studies – namely, the identification and resulting allure of Paul as an inherently authoritative figure in early Christianity.
Taylor’s typology of the porous and the buffered self are central to his thesis on secularisation in the Western world. The porous self is a characteristic of the enchanted world and the buffered self of the disenchanted world. He differentiates between these characterisations in terms of particular themes such as meaning, agency, boundaries, vulnerability, individual vs. society, and belief. Applying these characterisations to the African context using particular case studies reveals that the porous self continues to feature in the contemporary African context. This raises the question of the kinds of theologies that are commensurate with them and how they are manifest in the African context.
This paper examines the question of Islam and its relationship to violence in Muslim reformer Asghar Ali Engineer’s pre- and post-11 September 2001 works in response to the attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. We argue that that while his pre-9/11 approach to violence offers a much more historical and systemic account of violence by viewing it as a societal problem involving a number of different agents, the post-9/11 evocation of Gandhi does the opposite. By evoking the figure of Gandhi in a post-9/11 context, Engineer not only addresses the issue of violence as a peculiarly Muslim one but forecloses any possibility to understanding violence as a historically evolving and systemically operating phemonenon. In ignoring this, Engineer finds himself well accommodated within the larger politics of Empire and its dehistoricised, naturalised, and individualised interpretation of Muslim related violence.