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Series:

Michaelle Biddle

Résumé

Trois filigranes portant un texte en écriture arabe ont été trouvés dans des manuscrits en écriture arabe, copiés au Nord du Nigéria. Il s’agit des filigranes :

  1. BENIAMINO ARBIB Yā Naṣīb, « Yā Naṣīb », en arabe « Ô destinée, ô fortune ! », environ 1889–1919 ;

  2. A.YDLIBI 3 Brazil Street Manchester ʿAbd [a]l-Ġanī Idlibī, « ʿAbd [a]l-Ġanī Idlibī » écrit en arabe, début du xxe s., 1921 ? ;

  3. SÙRÙ LÓGÙN AIYE, en langue Yoruba et écriture arabe (ʿaǧamī), placé à l’intérieur d’une tablette à écrire, avec, de part et d’autre, REGISTERED TRADE MARK, habituellement lu : Hakurī Māġanī Dūnyā en langue hausa, écrite à l’aide de l’alphabet arabe (ʿaǧamī), 1908–1932.

Les trois marques apparaissent sur du papier fait à la machine. Cet article décrit comment elles ont été réalisées techniquement et discute les sources, dates et spécificités de chacun des papiers, ainsi que les changements de routes commerciales liés à l’arrière-fond politique des xixe et début du xxe s.

Series:

Olga Yastrebova

Résumé

Cette étude décrit et analyse une collection de farmāns persans des deux premières décennies du xixe s. Ils ont été écrits au nom du Shah iranien Fatḥ ʿAlī à plusieurs reprises durant la guerre russo-persane qui s’est déroulée dans le Caucase en 1804–1813. Le support des documents est du papier de fabrication russe produit par trois moulins.

Series:

Jan Just Witkam

Abstract

When Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) was exiled from Mecca and Arabia in August 1885, he had not even begun to think about what he would do with the research materials that he had been collecting. Back at his home base in Leiden he decided to write the book that would bring him instant fame, Mekka. It appeared in two volumes between 1888 and 1889. Snouck Hurgronje’s abrupt departure from Western Arabia made it necessary for him to maintain lines of information on Mecca. When he was chased away by the Turkish authorities he had been on the point of acquiring copies of two major sources for a history of Mecca, the Manāʾiḥ al-Karam by al-Sinǧārī and the Ḫulāṣat al-Kalām by Aḥmad b. Zaynī Daḥlān. Following his involuntary departure he managed to acquire handwritten copies of these two key sources about the history of Mecca. Through a recently discovered letter from his friend and companion Raden Aboe Bakar Djajadiningrat, which was addressed to the Dutch vice-consul in Jeddah, P. N. van der Chijs, we now know more about scribal practices in Mecca in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Not only can these practices be gleaned from the letter, but the two manuscript copies of historical texts that Snouck Hurgronje ordered from Mecca have also been preserved. This gives us unique insights into the theory and practice of text copying in Mecca in 1885–1889. Through an analysis of the content of this letter, which is here edited, translated and commented upon, it is now possible to understand what exactly was meant with the term ‘Abū Šubbāk’.

Series:

Anne Regourd

Abstract

This is a statistically-based study that seeks to identify the period during which the various papers Abū Šubbāk were used in Yemen and Ethiopia. They have been classified according to a typology based on the description of internal marks of the paper. It shows that, in the first half of the twentieth century, these papers were far from being ‘exotic’ but were commonplace, and were a well-known product in the countries of the Red Sea where the copying of manuscripts was still carried on. Several papers shared the market, and some of the manufacturers, among them the famous Italian firm of Galvani, were Western. The area was served by more than one entry point, but the study focuses on the indirect and above all internal routes of the papers to which manuscripts offer privileged access.

Series:

Michaelle Biddle

Résumé

La collection 3 de manuscrits islamiques, 653, conservée à la section « Manuscrits » du Département des livres rares de la Bibliothèque de l’Université de Princeton, se compose d’une série de documents du gouvernement tunisien, datés de 1277/1860–1861. Ils ont été rédigés sur du papier vélin à la marque du Ministre des Affaires étrangères, Muṣṭafā Ḫaznadār, en arabe – wizārat al-ḫariǧiyya Muṣṭafā Ḫaznadār.

Series:

Francis Richard

Abstract

In this note attention is paid to papers bearing dry seals with Cyrillic inscriptions which were exported to Persia from the Russian Empire. From a brief look at such use in the Ottoman world, it can be shown that this paper was used in other places. Later this type of seal seems to have been used for authenticating documents.

Series:

Anne Regourd

Abstract

We showed in a previous study that a paper “Bombay”, which had come to Yemen, probably through Aden, was manufactured in England and then distributed by an Indian merchant. The hypothesis was put forward that the network of these Indian distributors extended to Ethiopia (Harar), albeit indirectly. A series of papers discovered in the spring of 2015 allows us to confirm the presence in the city of Harar of papers manufactured in the West for Indian merchants, and to attempt to reconstruct their trade route.

Series:

Evyn Kropf

Résumé

Le terme « Alikurna » a été employé par les Ottomans dans leur classification des papiers aussi tôt que le milieu du xviie s. On pense qu’il a son origine dans le nom corrompu d’une ville – ou d’une région – italienne, fournisseur de ce type de papier, plus exactement Livourne ou la Ligurie. Au xixe s., les producteurs de papier italiens rappellent cette dénomination par une contremarque en écriture arabe « ليكوريا» placée dans leurs papiers destinés au marché ottoman. L’un de ces papiers portant la marque du fabricant Ferdinando Betti se trouve dans un manuscrit actuellement conservé à la Bibliothèque de l’Université du Michigan. Contenant l’histoire en arabe d’un héros populaire en 25 petits volumes, le manuscrit a été copié en 1895 par Muḥammad b. Sulaymān de la famille bien connue des Nablusi, ʿArafāt. Mais le même papier (de même que d’autres) apparaît également dans des manuscrits samaritains contemporains de la région de Nablus, ainsi que dans des manuscrits en arabe provenant de Damas. Prenant la notion de « papier Alikurna » comme point de départ, cet article explore les origines possibles de cette contremarque en arabe nouvellement identifiée et s’intéresse au sens de son apparition dans des produits italiens à partir de l’étude de la production italienne et de sa circulation dans le milieu des scribes du Levant ottoman, à la fin du xixe s.

Series:

Alice Shafi-Leblanc

Abstract

According to the researches that have been led on the subject until today, watermarks and countermarks only appear in the 10th/16th century through imported European papers. However, as I was studying Moẓaffarid manuscripts illuminations, I happened to notice the presence of a countermark in Arabic language and script in a 8th/14th century Qurʾan made in Širāz. It is read al-ǧalālī and could refer to a paper size or a workshop. Even if we still can’t explain the existence of such a mark, as it is unique in this region and at that time, the fact remains that the lack of systematic paper analyses—which are often materially impossible—prevents us from knowing the extent of the phenomenon. Whether it be an isolated production or not, this countermark could show an early appropriation of European watermarked paper making techniques in the Persian world.