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Edited by Myint Swe Khine and Nagla Ali

Three dimensional or 3D printing technology is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Currently, low cost and affordable 3D printers enable teachers, schools, and higher education institutions to make 3D printing a part of the curriculum. Integrating 3D printing into the curriculum provides an opportunity for students to collaboratively discuss, design, and create 3D objects. The literature reveals that there are numerous advantages of integrating 3D printing into teaching and learning. Educators recommend that 3D printing should be introduced to the students at a young age to teach STEM concepts, develop creativity and engage in team work – essential skills for the 21st century work force.

This edited volume documents recent attempts to integrate 3D printing into the curriculum in schools and universities and research on its efficacies and usefulness from the practitioners' perspectives. It unveils the exemplary works by educators and researchers in the field highlighting the current trends, theoretical and practical aspects of 3D printing in teaching and learning.

Contributors are: Waleed K. Ahmed, Issah M. Alhamad, Hayder Z. Ali, Nagla Ali, Hamad AlJassmi,Jason Beach, Jennifer Buckingham, Michael Buckingham, Dean Cairns, Manisha Dayal, Muhammet Demirbilek, Yujiro Fujiwara, Anneliese Hulme, Myint Swe Khine, Lee Kenneth Jones, Song Min Jeong, Jennifer Loy, Kehui Luo, Elena Novak, James I. Novak, Joshua Pearce, Dorothy Belle Poli, Chelsea Schelly, Sylvia Stavridi, Lisa Stoneman, Goran Štrkalj, Mirjana Štrkalj, Pamela Sullivan, Jeremy Wendt, Stephanie Wendt, and Sonya Wisdom.

Stability and Change in Science Education -- Meeting Basic Learning Needs

Homeostasis and Novelty in Teaching and Learning

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Edited by Phyllis Katz and Lucy Avraamidou

In this book the editors consider the resistance to change among teachers and learners despite all the evidence that science participation brings benefits for both individuals and nations. Beginning with biology, Stability and Change in Science Education: Meeting Basic Learning Needs explores this balance in teaching and learning science. The authors reflect upon this equilibrium as they each present their work and its contribution.

The book provides a wide range of examples using the change/stability lens. Authors from the Netherlands, Israel, Spain, Canada and the USA discuss how they observe and consider both homeostasis and novelty in theory, projects and other work. The book contains examples from science educators in schools and in other science rich settings.

Contributors are: Lucy Avraamidou, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari, Michelle Crowl, Marilynne Eichinger, Lars Guenther, Maria Heras, Phyllis Katz, Joy Kubarek, Lucy R. McClain, Patricia Patrick, Wolff-Michael Roth, Isabel Ruiz-Mallen, Lara Smetana, Hani Swirski, Heather Toomey Zimmerman, and Bart Van de Laar.

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Edited by Phyllis Katz and Lucy Avraamidou

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Edited by Phyllis Katz and Lucy Avraamidou

Homeostasis and Novelty as Concepts for Science Journalism

A Re-Interpretation of the Selection and Depiction of Scientific Issues in the Media

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Lars Guenther

Abstract When formal school education ends, for most people mass media become the most important and often the only source of information about science, scientific work, and scientific findings. Thus, media create informal learning contexts when they inform their readers, viewers, and listeners about new advances in science and technology. In these contexts, mass media have the potential to actively influence how people feel and think about science. That is why it is important to investigate how journalists select and depict scientific issues in the media. Homeostasis and novelty can be seen as related to news factors that guide a science journalist in his or her professional work, i.e. when selecting from a pool of potential issues. While the factors consonance, continuity, and composition can represent tendencies of homeostasis; unexpectedness, curiosity, and topicality can represent novelty. In addition, the terms can be applied to historically describe the way science journalists have reported on science, and how others have expected them to report. This chapter will discuss homeostasis and novelty as concepts for science journalism, with a special focus on the media’s representation of scientific evidence (= (un)certainty of scientific results).

Introduction

Meeting Basic Needs

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Phyllis Katz and Lucy Avraamidou

Abstract This introduction provides the rationale for the book. We put forward an argument about the importance of science education and the extensive reform movement whose goals are to make it more relevant to students and the public. We explain how we considered the basic needs of homeostasis and novelty, as we thought about the nature of the changes we seek to implement as science educators. We include a description of the questions the contributing authors sought to answer in approaching the challenge to look at their work in terms of these basic needs.

Leveraging Families’ Shared Experiences to Connect to Disciplinary Content in Ecology

Preliminary Results from the stem Pillars Museum-Library-University Partnership

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Heather Toomey Zimmerman, Lucy R. McClain and Michele Crowl

Abstract This chapter considers the homeostasis of family relationships and familiar places and the novelty of science workshops facilitated by community science and engineering professionals. Like the other contributions in this edited volume, our stem Pillars research and development effort balances the familiar or homeostasis, which is the tendency of people to maintain their current state of equilibria, with exposure to novel (i.e., unusual, interesting) science and engineering content. In this sense, our work uses a personally-relevant family learning framework that considers intergenerational relations and shared experiences as a familiar context that can create a safe intellectual space to mediate exposure to novel stem content during the scientific sense-making processes. This chapter illustrates, first, how we used our personally-relevant family learning framework to balance new and familiar experiences in the design of our intergenerational workshops. Next, we provide a case study from our research of how we analyze novel and prior experiences in our video-data from one workshop. We conclude this chapter with a discussion of the applicability of our approach for research and practice.

Maintaining Homeostasis While Embracing Novelty

Students’ Questions as Agents of Student’s Voice in the Science Classroom

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Hani Swirski and Ayelet Baram-Tsabari

Abstract In this work we conceptualize homeostasis as the required formal curriculum – the stable, slow changing, centralized requirements set by the Ministry of Education or other institutions for teaching science and technology at various grades. The curriculum is also the basis for high-stakes national exams, which even strengthen its hold on the content discussed in the lesson (Dori & Herscovitz, 1999). Novelty in this work is conceptualized as “the students’ voice”, which refers to learning based on student choices and interests. Although this notion was already introduced in the early 20th century in Dewey’s work (1902, 1916), it is far from being the norm in mainstream science teaching. The ecology of many science classrooms includes a highly detailed science curriculum, which was not developed with student’s interests in mind (Hagay & Baram-Tsabari, 2011). Moreover, researchers are still drawing attention to the lack of a “student voice” in teaching and learning (Cook-Sather, 2006) and to the disparities between the curriculum and students’ interest in elementary (Baram-Tsabari & Yarden, 2005; Swirski & Baram-tsabari, 2014), middle (e.g. Mcphail, Pierson, Freeman, Goodman, & Ayappa, 2000) and high school (e.g. Hagay & Baram-Tsabari, 2011). In this chapter we review empirical insights about students’ interest in science with reference to its stability over a decade and its variations across different age groups and gender. We describe “the shadow curriculum” strategy for identifying students’ interests based on their questions and incorporating them into the formal curriculum in a planned manner (Hagay & Baram-Tsabari, 2011). Using this strategy, we aim to maintain homeostasis while embracing novelty, by using students’ questions as agents of their voice in the science classroom.

Making the Unfamiliar Familiar

Zoo and Aquarium Educators Leveraging Novelty and Curiosity

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Joy Kubarek

Abstract Zoo and aquarium educators are well positioned to not only spark curiosity but to leverage that curiosity into substantive lines of inquiry with learners of all ages. The presentation of novel creatures, places, and phenomena creates wonder and awe that subsequently opens up questioning and engaging in further investigation. Many of the animals and environments in the care of zoos and aquariums are representative of ecosystems many people have never and may never have the opportunity to encounter firsthand. Even more so, very few will ever come nose to nose with animals in the way one does at a zoo or aquarium. Zoos and aquariums have also become more sophisticated in how they represent current issues and make the connection to human impact. These experiences challenge people to go beyond their homeostatic thinking of what they understand of the world around them. These are powerful and unique learning opportunities not replicable in a classroom or textbook. This chapter shares examples from both research and practice of how zoo and aquarium educators ignite and utilize curiosity to make otherwise unfamiliar concepts come to life and become relatable to their learners.