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Edited by Myint Swe Khine and Nagla Ali

Three dimensional or 3D printing technology is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Currently, low cost and affordable 3D printers enable teachers, schools, and higher education institutions to make 3D printing a part of the curriculum. Integrating 3D printing into the curriculum provides an opportunity for students to collaboratively discuss, design, and create 3D objects. The literature reveals that there are numerous advantages of integrating 3D printing into teaching and learning. Educators recommend that 3D printing should be introduced to the students at a young age to teach STEM concepts, develop creativity and engage in team work – essential skills for the 21st century work force.

This edited volume documents recent attempts to integrate 3D printing into the curriculum in schools and universities and research on its efficacies and usefulness from the practitioners' perspectives. It unveils the exemplary works by educators and researchers in the field highlighting the current trends, theoretical and practical aspects of 3D printing in teaching and learning.

Contributors are: Waleed K. Ahmed, Issah M. Alhamad, Hayder Z. Ali, Nagla Ali, Hamad AlJassmi,Jason Beach, Jennifer Buckingham, Michael Buckingham, Dean Cairns, Manisha Dayal, Muhammet Demirbilek, Yujiro Fujiwara, Anneliese Hulme, Myint Swe Khine, Lee Kenneth Jones, Song Min Jeong, Jennifer Loy, Kehui Luo, Elena Novak, James I. Novak, Joshua Pearce, Dorothy Belle Poli, Chelsea Schelly, Sylvia Stavridi, Lisa Stoneman, Goran Štrkalj, Mirjana Štrkalj, Pamela Sullivan, Jeremy Wendt, Stephanie Wendt, and Sonya Wisdom.

The Translational Design of Universities

An Evidence-Based Approach


Edited by Kenn Fisher

Whilst schools are transforming their physical and virtual environments at a relatively glacial pace in most countries across the globe, universities are under extreme pressure to adapt to the rapid emergence of the virtual campus. Competition for students by online course providers is resulting in a rapidly emerging understanding of what the nature of the traditional campus will look like in the 21st century.
The blended virtual and physical technology enabled, hybrid learning environments now integrate the face-to-face and online virtual experience synchronously and asynchronously. Local branch campuses are emerging in city and town centres and international branch campuses are growing at a rapid rate. There is increasing pressure at various levels, i.e. the city, the urban and the campus, to create formal and informal learning spaces as well as re-purposing the library and social or third-spaces.
Many new hybrid campus developments are not based on any form of rigorous scholarly evidence. The risk is that many of these projects may fail. In taking an evidence-based approach this book seeks to align with the model of translational research from medical practice, using a modified ‘translational design’ approach. The majority of the chapter material comes from the scholarly work of doctoral graduates and their dissertations.
This book is the second in a series on the evidence-based translational design of educational institutions, with the first volume focussing on schools. This volume on Higher Education covers the city to the classroom and those elements in between. It also explores what the future might look like as judgements are made about what works in campus planning and design in our rapidly changing virtual and physical worlds.
Contributors are: Neda Abbasi, Ronald Beckers, Flavia Curvelo Magdaniel, Mollie Dollinger, Robert A. Ellis, Kenn Fisher, Barry J. Fraser, Kobi (Jacov) Haina, Rifca Hashimshony, Leah Irving, Marian Mahat, Saadia Majeed, Jacqueline Pizzuti-Ashby, Leanne Rose-Munro, Mahmoud Reza Saghafi, Panayiotis Skordi, Alejandra Torres-Landa Lopez, and Ji Yu.

Emerging Trends in Learning Analytics

Leveraging the Power of Education Data


Edited by Myint Swe Khine

The term 'learning analytics' is defined as the measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of information about learners and their contexts for the purposes of understanding and optimizing learning. In recent years learning analytics has emerged as a promising area of research that trails the digital footprint of the learners and extracts useful knowledge from educational databases to understand students’ progress and success. With the availability of an increased amount of data, potential benefits of learning analytics can be far-reaching to all stakeholders in education including students, teachers, leaders, and policymakers. Educators firmly believe that, if properly harnessed, learning analytics will be an indispensable tool to enhance the teaching-learning process, narrow the achievement gap, and improve the quality of education.

Many investigations have been carried out and disseminated in the literature and studies related to learning analytics are growing exponentially. This book documents recent attempts to conduct systematic, prodigious and multidisciplinary research in learning analytics and present their findings and identify areas for further research and development. The book also unveils the distinguished and exemplary works by educators and researchers in the field highlighting the current trends, privacy and ethical issues, creative and unique approaches, innovative methods, frameworks, and theoretical and practical aspects of learning analytics.

Contributors are: Arif Altun, Alexander Amigud, Dongwook An, Mirella Atherton, Robert Carpenter, Martin Ebner, John Fritz, Yoshiko Goda, Yasemin Gulbahar, Junko Handa, Dirk Ifenthaler, Yumi Ishige, Il-Hyun Jo, Kosuke Kaneko, Selcan Kilis, Daniel Klasen, Mehmet Kokoç, Shin'ichi Konomi, Philipp Leitner, ChengLu Li, Min Liu, Karin Maier, Misato Oi, Fumiya Okubo, Xin Pan, Zilong Pan, Clara Schumacher, Yi Shi, Atsushi Shimada, Yuta Taniguchi, Masanori Yamada, and Wenting Zou.


21st C Learner Modalities


Kenn Fisher


Panayiotis Skordi and Barry J. Fraser


This chapter draws on the field of learning environments and focusses on some of the pedagogical, social and psychological aspects of classroom environments associated with the design of university settings. Although most past learning environment research has focused on school settings, this chapter applies these research traditions to the teaching and learning of university-level statistics. With a sample of 375 students studying business statistics at a university in California, we developed and validated a questionnaire to assess student perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their classroom environments (e.g. teacher support, involvement, task orientation and equity) and investigated some determinants of classroom environment (sex, age, ethnicity) and some effects of classroom environment on student outcomes (achievement, enjoyment, statistics anxiety).

At-scale Innovative University Learning Spaces of the Future

An Approach to Evidencing and Evaluating What Works


Leanne Rose-Munro and Saadia Majeed


This chapter explores a concept and an emerging methodological approach being used to inform the design development and evaluation of next generation university learning spaces. The methods of evaluation aim to capture evidence of the physical design affordances that facilitate student-centred collaborative learning experiences. The underpinning concept model provides justification for the mixed methods interdisciplinary approach, which includes the use of prototyping to interrogate the learning space design from the perspective of the interrelationships between pedagogy, spatial affordances and technology (Radcliffe, 2009; Finklestien, Weston, Ferris, & Winer, 2016).

During the design development phase, informed student voice is used to cultivate the design affordances. Informed student voice is once again used during the post occupancy evaluation phase to determine the success of inhabiting the next-gen learning space.

Next generation learning spaces (NGLS) are associated with physical spaces that are augmented with technology, aiming to enhance the learning opportunities for students (Brooks, 2012). NGLS’s can be described as innovative spaces that promote the mixing of the physical and virtual, with both individual and group learning, and a blended mobile presence that facilitates the personal engagement of each student with the learning process (Crisp, 2014).

The intersection of the pedagogical approach, spatial design and technology attributes in NGLS’s in primary and secondary schools aim to invite participation in personalised learning experiences through the use of differentiated teaching and learning practices and tools, thus enabling student-centred learning (Rose-Munro in Imms et al., 2015; Radcliffe, 2008; Blackmore et al., 2011). At this time, little is known about NGLS’s in higher education.

Commentators however report that transformational change in Universities are driven in part by an employability skills gap, with critics reporting that higher education institutions have failed to impart the necessary business and soft skills for graduate employment in economies that are increasingly complex and competitive (Collet, Hine, & du Plessis, 2014). It is imperative that all university stakeholders respond to transformational change and the development of innovative learning spaces with a clear vision of the expected return on investment, and build campus infrastructure with the confidence that the physical design affordances will have a significant impact upon enabling student success.


Kenn Fisher and Robert A. Ellis


Since 2008 – following the Global Financial Crisis – significant funds have been invested in university facilities particularly in Australia. Some of these funds were allocated to teaching and learning spaces and this trend has continued unabated to the time of writing of this article. Increased funding is also being initiated overseas with many of the learning spaces being designed around a next generation learning environment (NGLE) concept, otherwise known as technology enabled active learning (TEAL) environments. Whilst some evaluation of these developments has occurred over the same period it is only since 2011 that any rigorous scholarly studies have begun to emerge, and these are very small in number. Yet significant capital investment in NGLE’s continues unabated, and the instigators of these spatial developments still do not know if they actually work. Current debates which are creating tension are holistic definitions of learning environments and what counts as legitimate evidence of effectiveness. This paper reviews evaluation developments since 2011, following a previous article (Fisher & Newton, 2014), which reviewed studies prior to 2011. Five scholarly peer reviewed studies have been examined in relation to the current debates. On the basis of the review, a more holistic approach to evaluation of learning environments is suggested through the use of observational and experiential data with a view to providing an evidence-based approach to inform the burgeoning capital investments required to re-engineer the vast amounts of existing and now very much obsolete university estates learning environments assets.

Defining Quality in Academic Library Spaces

Criteria to Guide Space Planning and Ongoing Evaluation


Neda Abbasi and Kenn Fisher


The chapter addresses the key question of “what defines quality in academic library spaces?” Drawing upon a review of existing literature on planning, design and post-occupancy evaluation of libraries, a framework is proposed which includes six key factors to be considered in the planning and design of academic library spaces: (1) functionality; (2) being learner-centred; (3) sustainability; (4) social inclusiveness; (5) being technology-infused; and (6) a sense of inspiration.

Development of this framework was followed by a series of site visits from sixteen academic libraries in Australia in order to better understand the practical implications of the criteria of quality included in the proposed framework and to examine different ways of translating them into the language of space design. Each of the libraries visited had responded to a certain context, specific challenges, and a set of requirements in a unique way. Different design features and responses in these library spaces were linked to the six key factors and their corresponding criteria of quality and measures and helped in mapping out the current trends and issues in planning, design, and evaluation of academic library spaces.

The chapter concludes with addressing the importance of refining the definition of quality of library spaces according to the social, cultural, pedagogical and technology-related contexts of an institution and highlighting the need for ongoing evaluation of library spaces quality.

Designing for the Future

A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Peter Jones Learning Centre


Jacqueline Pizzuti-Ashby


This exploratory study examines the Peter Jones Learning Centre’s (PJLC) transition from a quiet, autonomous interior to a learning commons model that encourages collaboration and socialization.

Located at University of the Fraser Valley (UFV) in British Columbia, the PJLC has been revitalized to support new learning theories and provides a hub for students’ involvement and engagement on campus. Research in the planning, function, and utilization of non-formal learning environments is limited, therefore the study’s purpose is threefold: first, to gain insight as to administrators’ perceptions and observations of student learning in non-formal learning space; second, to understand how administrators implement their understanding of learning into the planning, design, and operation of the PJLC; and third, to examine the transactional relationship between the learning environment and learner.

Using the post-occupancy evaluation, ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, including five administrators influential in the PJLC design and space programming, and five learners who had utilized the facility over the course of their studies. The space performance evaluations conducted assessed the PJLC’s technical, functional, and behavioural features. This was followed by structured observational sweeps that included the documentation of 1,943 campus members’ location, activities, gender, and sociological grouping preference. Administrators’ describe student learning in non-formal learning space as technologically supported, socially driven, and multitask-oriented, and explained that they integrated their understanding of student learning in the PJLC’s space programming, physical design, policies, services, and resources provided.

The space performance evaluations demonstrated how the PJLC’s setting functioned and identified structural and environmental features that supported and hindered students’ use. Learners interviewed described that the PJLC’s physical design, operation, services, and resources provided were influential in their use of the facility. The observations conducted of campus members’ utilization of the PJLC document a series of social and activity patterns within the building.

The study’s findings suggest further research in areas such as gender, preference of learning space, integrated planning and research, environmental assessment, and inclusive learning environments that accommodate students with special needs.


Rifca Hashimshony and Jacov Haina


In discussions about the future of the university, little has been said about how these changes will affect its spatial layout, even though a university’s physical characteristics must complement and strengthen its mission. This chapter addresses that issue and provides an overview of the physical layout of the future university that responds to 21stC drivers of change. It initially describes the development of the mission of the university in the western world and how that mission has determined the basic architectural prototypes of university design since the Middle Ages. Based on this review the authors re-examine these prototypes, identifying the main characteristics of contemporary society that are causing universities to re-evaluate their missions. They then analyse the impact of these changes on the institutional and spatial structure of the university. Four possible scenarios for the design of the future university are explored. The final section summarises the important factors that should be considered by higher education planners seeking to effectively direct the future design of their institutions.