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International Trends in Educational Assessment

Emerging Issues and Practices

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Edited by Myint Swe Khine

Assessment and evaluation have always been an integral part of the educational process. Quality and purposeful assessment can assist in students’ learning and their achievement. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the roles of educational measurement, evaluation, and assessment with a view to improving the education systems throughout the world. Educators are interested in how to adequately prepare the young generation to meet the ever-growing demands of the 21st century utilizing robust assessment methods. There has also been increased demand in accountability and outcomes assessment in schools to bridge the gap between classroom practices and measurement and assessment of learners’ performance. This volume contains selected and invited papers from the First International Conference on Educational Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment (ICEMEA).

Contributors are: Peter Adams, Derin Atay, Nafisa Awwal, Helen Barefoot, Patrick Griffin, Bahar Hasirci, Didem Karakuzular, Don Klinger, Leigh Powell, Vicente Reyes, Mark Russell, Charlene Tan, Bryan Taylor, and Zhang Quan.

Rasch Model

Research and Practice in China

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Zhang Quan

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Jennifer L. Oakley

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This ethnographic case study explores the emotional climate of a beginning science teacher’s Year 10 classroom and examines the ongoing use of cogenerative dialogue as a tool to transform teaching and learning. Classroom emotional climate has been linked to student academic outcomes, engagement in the learning process and student behavior. In this study, cogenerative dialogue was implemented in an Australian school setting to gain insight into classroom emotional climate and as a tool to reengage students who are disengaged from secondary science learning. The use of cogenerative dialogue to create shared understandings of classroom happenings has been found to improve teaching and learning in secondary schools. Randall Collins’ Interaction Ritual Theory provided a lens through which classroom interactions between the teacher and her students were examined in relation to their contributing effect on classroom emotional climate. In this multi-faceted study, data were collected using observations of classroom interactions, interviews and cogenerative dialogue. Further, student perceptions of emotional climate were recorded during classroom lessons using TurningPoint™ technology. An important contribution of this study is the understanding that unsuccessful classroom interactions involving a difficult and disruptive student perpetuated a cycle of non-membership in the classroom and further unsuccessful interactions with the classroom teacher. However, introducing cogenerative dialogue where this student experienced successful interactions with the classroom teacher, provided impetus for the student to transfer his membership of cogenerative dialogue into the classroom setting. This created a cycle of positive interactions with the classroom teacher, reaffirming the student’s membership of the classroom group. Further, this student gained positive emotional energy from interactions in the classroom and rated emotional climate as more positive. This study highlights the effectiveness of cogenerative dialogue in a beginning science teacher’s classroom to transform students’ perceptions of emotional climate.

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Alberto Bellocchi

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I present new research in this chapter exploring students’ lived experiences of social bonds – social and emotional connections – in science classrooms. I extend existing research on emotional events to consider their impact on social bond status by focusing on student introspection, or third-order rituals. Drawing on reflective discussions conducted in two 10th grade science classes, my focus was to understand science students’ social bonding experiences and how they are shaped by emotional events. Key aspects of social bond status associated with emotional events are presented including vicarious emotional experiences, personal relationships versus social roles, and how teacher responses to questions may disrupt bonds. Implications for future research on social bonds, emotional events and science learning and teaching are presented.

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Alberto Bellocchi

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In this chapter I present an original study of the interplay between emotions and science inquiry in an 8th-grade science class. I address the need to research emotional learning events by focusing on third-order (introspective) rituals. Research on emotion and science inquiry is scant, making the need for work like this pressing. Through analysis of student emotion diary data during three different inquiry activities, I focus on emotional events that may work against sustained engagement with inquiry. Practical implications are considered through the development of two inter-related perspectives named pedagogy of emotion and emotional pedagogy to assist teachers and students in addressing deleterious emotions related to science inquiry.

Online and Face-to-Face Learning in Science

Learning Events and Transformation of Understanding

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Alberto Bellocchi and James P. Davis

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Historical and sociological accounts of events typically refer to abrupt macro-social changes that create discontinuity in social structures, thereby changing society. At a micro-social level of experience, events may also unfold that contribute to important localized change for the particular people involved. This study of a learning event is an original investigation using empirical data sourced from a secondary school science classroom. Our study adopts a micro-social perspective of events in the context of a school science lesson where emotional fluctuations form the basis for an event to be analyzed. In this sense we adopt the learning event as our unit of analysis to understand the lived experience of a student, the turning point in his learning, and the transformation of his understanding of scientific ideas, as localized structures. This study focuses on the experience of a year 9 science student during a lesson involving both online and face-to-face forms of social interaction. The learning event we analyze highlights the possible contribution of this type of analysis to understanding better, the interplay between emotion and cognition in science education contexts.

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BELLOCCHI ALBERTO, JAMES P. DAVIS and DONNA KING

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In this chapter, we present an original study of the flow of emotional energy that occurs during classroom practices associated with science demonstrations. We take the view that macro-social human practices, such as learning to teach science, are grounded in the micro-social processes that take shape in classroom interactions. Drawing on interaction ritual theory and a theory of eventful learning, the focus is to understand and illustrate the way in which subtle emotions, which bubble away beneath the surface of classroom life, are just as important for understanding how one learns to be a science teacher, as more dramatic counterparts like joy. Beginning with a first order ritual in our teacher education classes, we then follow the flow of emotional energy, a steady and durable form of emotional arousal, across time and space through second-order rituals when preservice and beginning teachers enact demonstrations in their high school science teaching. Implications for future research are considered for tackling the final frontier of interaction rituals research: third order rituals.