Edited by Dikaia Chatziefstathiou and Andrea Kathryn Talentino
Lessons from Southern and West Africa
Vusi Gumede, Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba and Serges Djoyou Kamga
Simeon J. Newman and Laura J. Enríquez
Research on East-Central Europe suggests that the transitions from state socialism to capitalism generated civil society. The present authors focus on the effects of a transition of the opposite variety: from capitalism towards state socialism. Both kinds of transitions are characterized by a disjuncture between enduring political economies and legitimate discourses calling for them to be changed. Marshaling qualitative and quantitative data, the authors demonstrate the existence, and assess the effects, of such a disjuncture in the case of Venezuela between circa 2000 and 2010. They examine a subset of rural civic organizations, showing that they referenced mutually-incompatible aspects of the disjointed state when developing their programs, leading them to within-class heterogeneity and occasional across-classes convergence, as is characteristic of pluralist civil society.
Fumiya Onaka and Akiko Nagai
Various hypotheses have been used to examine gender inequality in careers, while at the same time comparative and historical sociology has developed around certain areas of interest. This introduction clarifies that there is a need for a comparative and historical sociology specifically related to women’s careers. It presents the rationale for this special issue, which gathers articles opening gateways to further research in this vein.
This article describes a social divide among women which was caused by an increase of highly-educated women’s labor force participation. The author focuses on female teachers in elementary school who managed to continue working after marriage in a time when most married women stayed at home in Japan. By focusing on a difference between the types of employment status among female teachers, the examination revealed that a group of women with low wages and unstable employment was generated as an unintended consequence when female teachers, who were regarded to have a stable occupational status, sought to continue working after giving birth. Further study should be conducted on this problem, because an international divide of labor is in progress under the global economy.
Gender-based prejudice and discrimination are phenomena embedded in cultural stereotypes and organizational practices that can disadvantage women in academic hiring. This article analyzes the biographies of female scholars in sociology from 18 top universities in China, finding that although the number of female scholars is increasing, it is still substantially less than that of male scholars. Relative to the increasing enrollment rate of female college students, the ratio of female scholars has dropped. Female scholars show their strong performance in research, not only doing well in work evaluation but also further developing their specific fields of research. Female scholars’ research interests are not limited to “Marriage and Family” or “gender studies”, but extend into a wider field of vision area of research. Although this article has not found the reason why female scholars are underrepresented in universities’ hiring, it proves that the limitation of research interests and abilities of female scholars are not the explanation.