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Edited by Bernard Feltz, Marcus Missal and Andrew Cameron Sims

Neuroscientists often consider free will to be an illusion. Contrary to this hypothesis, the contributions to this volume show that recent developments in neuroscience can also support the existence of free will. Firstly, the possibility of intentional consciousness is studied. Secondly, Libet’s experiments are discussed from this new perspective. Thirdly, the relationship between free will, causality and language is analyzed. This approach suggests that language grants the human brain a possibility to articulate a meaningful personal life. Therefore, human beings can escape strict biological determinism.

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Jeffrey M. Zacks

The representation of events is a central topic for cognitive science. In this series of lectures, Jeffrey M. Zacks situates event representations and their role in language within a theory of perception and memory. Event representations have a distinctive structure and format that result from computational and neural mechanisms operating during perception and language comprehension. A crucial aspect of the mechanisms is that event representations are updated to optimize their predictive utility. This updating has consequences for action control and for long-term memory. Event cognition changes across the adult lifespan and can be impaired by conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. These mechanisms have broad impact on everyday activity, and have shaped the development of media such as cinema and narrative fiction.

Evolution and Consciousness

From a Barren Rocky Earth to Artists, Philosophers, Meditators and Psychotherapists

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Michael M. DelMonte and Maeve Halpin

This volume provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the emerging concept of the evolution of consciousness. The simple, but dynamic, theory of evolving consciousness blends the powerful insights of modern science with the deep wisdom of age-old cultures, synthesising the traditions of East and West, of the head and heart, of the feminine and the masculine and of science and spirituality. By integrating diverse multi-disciplinary approaches, it provides an overarching and transcending model that moves us to a new level of meaning and understanding of our place in the world. An appreciation of the evolution of consciousness can deepen our connection to ourselves, to others and to the natural world, while bringing a new dimension to the work of psychotherapy.

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Edited by Andrew Kuzmicki and Ilona Błocian

The book is a volume of the collected works of sixteen different authors. They reflect the contemporary meaning of C. G. Jung’s theory on many fields of scientific activity and in a different cultural context: Japanese, South American and North American, as well as European: English, Italian and Polish. The authors consider a specific milieu of Jung’s theory and his influence or possible dialogue with contemporary ideas and scientific activity. A major task of the book will be to outline the contemporary—direct or indirect—usefulness and applicability of Jung's ideas at the beginning of the twenty-first century while simultaneously making a critical review of this theory.

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Miriam Gomes de Freitas

Abstract

This paper is not a discussion of R. Descartes nor B. Pascal’s philosophies. It is a comparative evaluation of their different psychological attitudes when facing the crisis of representation and the scientific methods therein derived. This paper argues that the dubious character of human knowledge, the changing means of coping with new unstable realities (social, cultural, political, economical and scientific) of the modern world are no longer answered by the “thaumazein/wonder” of the Greeks.” The dogmatic aspiration is described as an anxiety response to outside facts that unsettle the feeling of control over a world in transformation. In the struggle to overcome uncertainty Descartes’ “Meditations” proposes a new ground for knowledge. “Meditations” can be read as a terror tale, told by someone loosing control over an unsteady world. Through the “intuitus” Descartes manages to re-introduce the Absolute, no longer projected unto a Godhead but introjected into human reason, carrying similar divine powers. On the same period, Pascal gives a different answer to shared contestations over the nature and possibility of knowledge. Although one cannot define “space” nor “time” we can do a lot with our imperfect concepts, writes Pascal. Even ignoring what space is, he argues, we can do geometry. The paper proceeds to a further examination of the differences between cartesian and pascalian psychological attitudes facing the moving, uncertain character of the modern world and consequent restrictions set to knowledge generating different methodological strategies. Second, the paper establishes a connection between the scientific dogmatic aspirations of Freudian theory and the cartesian trend at variance with the Jungian method. Pascal and Jung share an acceptance of the vulnerabilities of human knowledge. Different methodological approaches to the unconscious are shaped by different epistemological attitudes.

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Anna Olejarczyk

Abstract

In this paper the archetypes are explored as signs of cultural discourse which constitute both the collective memory and common imagination. From this perspective, the archetypes, as primordial images, which give the world the anthropomorphic stamp, and as psychoids which compose the matter of human consciousness and unconsciousness given by human biological nature, are mega-signs of any epistemological model and any cultural narration. Archetypes are pivotal in commemorating the past and inventing the future.

The archetypes are unveiled in anamnetical exploration of collective memory; that leads to revealing the structure collective unconsciousness. They are creations of common imagination. They have a heterogeneous and dialectical nature: archetypes are at the same time natural and cultural phenomena, expressed and perceived by everyone in very personal way, and on a common level by using collective media. An archetype is something which is to be perceived and recognized only by the presence of contents that are capable of conscious perception. So it is clear that archetype is dialectic in another way as well: it is something which has roots in an unconscious layer and something which creates the stratum generated from both the conscious experiences and unconscious feeling. Archetype is dialectic because it is something which should be consciously expressed in signs of a language and symbols of beliefs, and which could only affects the level of associations of subconscious and unnamed emotions.

Developing Jung’s Theory of Mind in the Light of Evolutionary Psychology

The Theory of Consciousness in the Context of Cognitive Functioning of Individuals with Learning Disability and Pygmy Chimpanzees

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Andrew Kuzmicki

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to investigate the nature of consciousness, but also to develop C.G. Jung’s “Theory of Mind” in the light of evolutionary psychology. I try to demonstrate here evidence supporting the hypothesis of “continuity” (direct relationship, similarity) between the cognitive conscious processes (for instance on a level of communication) of human beings and other primates – in this case the chimpanzees bonobo – but also trying to support the general applicability of the theory of the self in psychological studies.

Nowadays the subject of consciousness still requires new studies and research to let us find out its immanent nature. This paper refers to the theory of consciousness in the context of analysis of cognitive functioning of the individuals with learning disability and cognitive functioning of the apes – pygmy chimpanzees.

Jung once said: “The nature of consciousness is a riddle whose solution I don’t know.” In this paper we are going to follow this riddle supporting Jung’s work and developing our insight into this still not fully understood area.

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Zbigniew Bitka

Abstract

Discourse on textual-psychoidal duality in Władysław Lech Terlecki’s novel Cierń i laur (Thorn and Laurel). The topic of the novel Cierń i laur (Thorn and Laurel) by Władysław Lech Terlecki (1933–1999) is the fate of Master – a nameless author of historical novels whose real model might be Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812–1887) – a nineteenth century author of historical and domestic fiction, well known in Europe of that time. His last romance coincides with his another novel written simultaneously – two fictional perspectives penetrate and illuminate each other. The play of mirror reflections, elements of chest-like composition and duality of inter-textual perspective find explanation in interpretative horizon inspired by concepts of Carl Gustav Jung. The analysis reveals possible references to mythology, Biblical stories and demonology “hidden” in the text, which may suggest archetypal background of Kraszewski’s story. In the case of Master it is “all-powerful femininity that inhibits the process of individuation” – the interpretation emphasizes chtonic motif of the archetype of the Great “Devouring” Mother which organizes the essential aspect of psychological problems of the fictional world in Cierń i laur (Thorn and Laurel).

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Christian Roesler

Abstract

In the early 1990s the first meta-analyses of empirical studies investigating the effectiveness of psychotherapy were published. Following this several researchers claimed that there were no studies investigating the effectiveness of Jungian psychotherapy and therefore it should be excluded from the field of psychotherapy. This moved several Jungian training institutes to design the first empirical studies in the field of Jungian psychotherapy, namely Zurich, Berlin and San Francisco. Now several of these studies have produced results and the following paper will give an overview of these. The paper will give us not only the overview of Jungian empirical studies and will summarize the results of the research, but also will give us an insight onto so detailed dimensions or outcomes of the therapy as a satisfaction of the patients with the Jungian psychotherapy, a level of reduction in symptoms and if the effects of psychotherapy were long-lasting.

How Can We Objectify a Study on Analytical Psychology?

The Sense of Applying Statistical Methods in Qualitative Research

Series:

Jolanta Kowal

Abstract

The methodology of classic statistics can be successfully applied to qualitative research, which creates a basis for posing hypotheses, questionnaire formulation or for the preparation of a projection (forecasting) method.

The aim of the qualitative research lies very often in the preparation of a questionnaire, which is designed as a tool for further wide- ranging research (Kowal, 2012). Chosen respondents are asked to give answers to posed questions. Respondents are supposed to answer verbally (this procedure can be recorded on a tape), in written form on a piece of paper or on a computer. They may draw a picture or choose an illustration symbolizing certain content.

This method allows us to carry out qualitative socio-economical research among consumers or sellers, as they are connected to market segmentation.