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This volume is witness to a spirited and fruitful period in the evolution of corpus linguistics. In twenty-two articles written by established corpus linguists, members of the ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern and Mediaeval English) association, this new volume brings the reader up to date with the cycle of activities which make up this field of study as it is today, dealing with corpus creation, language varieties, diachronic corpus study from the past to present, present-day synchronic corpus study, the web as corpus, and corpus linguistics and grammatical theory. It thus serves as a valuable guide to the state of the art for linguistic researchers, teachers and language learners of all persuasions.
After over twenty years of evolution, corpus linguistics has matured, incorporating nowadays not just small, medium and large primary corpus building but also specialised and multi-dimensional secondary corpus building; not just corpus analysis, but also corpus evaluation; not just an initial application of theory, but self-reflection and a new concern with theory in the light of experience.
The volume also highlights the growing emphasis on language as a changing phenomenon, both in terms of established historical study and the newer short-range diachronic study of 20th century and current English; and the growing area of overlap between these two.
Another section of the volume illustrates the recent changes in the definition of ‘corpus’ which have come about due to the emergence of new technologies and in particular of the availability of texts on the world wide web.
The volume culminates in the contributions by a group of corpus grammarians to a timely and novel discussion panel on the relationship between corpus linguistics and grammatical theory.
Editor: Susan Petrilli
Translation Translation contributes to current debate on the question of translation dealt with in an interdisciplinary perspective, with implications not only of a theoretical order but also of the didactic and the practical orders. In the context of globalization the question of translation is fundamental for education and responds to new community needs with reference to Europe and more extensively to the international world.
In its most obvious sense translation concerns verbal texts and their relations among different languages. However, to remain within the sphere of verbal signs, languages consist of a plurality of different languages that also relate to each other through translation processes. Moreover, translation occurs between verbal languages and nonverbal languages and among nonverbal languages without necessarily involving verbal languages. Thus far the allusion is to translation processes within the sphere of anthroposemiosis.
But translation occurs among signs and the signs implicated are those of the semiosic sphere in its totality, which are not exclusively signs of the linguistic-verbal order. Beyond anthroposemiosis, translation is a fact of life and invests the entire biosphere or biosemiosphere, as clearly evidenced by research in “biosemiotics”, for where there is life there are signs, and where there are signs or semiosic processes there is translation, indeed semiosic processes are translation processes. According to this approach reflection on translation obviously cannot be restricted to the domain of linguistics but must necessarily involve semiotics, the general science or theory of signs.
In this theoretical framework essays have been included not only from major translation experts, but also from researchers working in different areas, in addition to semiotics and linguistics, also philosophy, literary criticism, cultural studies, gender studies, biology, and the medical sciences. All scholars work on problems of translation in the light of their own special competencies and interests.
Author: Sara Laviosa
In the course of the last 10 years corpus-based studies of translation have given rise to a sizeable and coherent body of research within Pure and Applied Translation Studies. In view of these developments, it is important to assess the state of the art of Corpus-based Translation Studies and attempt to identify some of the main trends that are likely to characterise its expansion. The aim of this volume is to examine and evaluate the main ideas, methods of analysis, findings, and pedagogical applications of this relatively young and promising field of research. Translator trainees and teachers of translation, professional translators, young researchers, and scholars in Translation Studies will find the principles, the methodology, the discoveries, and the practical applications of corpus-based research useful and inspiring. They are useful in as far as they equip translation practitioners with tools and techniques that can truly improve the quality and efficiency of their work. They are inspiring because they reveal facts of the process and product of translation which are new, consistent, and based on solid empirical foundations.
Analyses and Techniques in Describing English
Editor: John M. Kirk
Aspects of Theory and Description
Author: Joe Trotta
This study provides the first description-oriented, theoretically-unaligned account of wh-clauses in Modern English. The author employs a data-based approach to examine aspects of both generative and non-generative work as regards their relative strengths and weaknesses.
Wh-clauses in English: Aspects of Theory and Description is a unique combination of statistical findings and qualitative analysis. It is not only underpinned by a systematic investigation of the Brown University corpus but also includes attested material from other sources such as the British National Corpus, the CobuildDirect corpus as well as material gleaned from the internet.
The qualitative and quantitative analyses are combined to approach a wide range of theoretical and descriptive issues, such as wh-movement, landing-sites for moved wh-XPs, vacuous movement, island constraints, among others. Not insignificantly, many questions of indeterminacy are addressed, such as the interface of conjunctions and relative words, the problems of demarcation between interrogatives and free relatives as well as structural ambiguities between interrogatives and exclamatives.
Comment les littératures du monde entier ont﷓elles, chacune à sa façon ou s'inspirant mutuellement, vécu, assumé, rejeté les modèles culturels, artistiques et linguistiques, que de force ou de gré elles ont été amenées à accueillir au long des siècles? Comment les traductions, vecteurs premiers des relations interlittéraires, ont﷓elles joué de leurs immenses ressources pour dissimuler, encourager ou décourager la constante et périlleuse mise en cause des traditions nationales? Les quatorze contributions de ce volume nous offrent un éventail de réponses à ces deux questions. De la France au Japon, de la Chine aux Etats-Unis, du Brésil à la Pologne, nous voyons se déployer les multiples stratégies médiatrices de la traduction, toutes révélatrices des tensions qui traversent les cultures où elle prend naissance, que ces tensions soient de nature culturelle, langagière ou littéraire. Ni simples transferts linguistiques, ni fenêtres transparentes sur l'Ailleurs, ni discours désincarnés sur l'Autre, les traductions relèvent plus exactement d'un processus complexe de communication, auquel prennent également part tant les traducteurs que leurs lecteurs: vivant et agissant au coeur des littératures adoptives, ils en investissent aussi bien les grands genres que la paralittérature, ils en infléchissent, souvent de concert, les valeurs et les modes d'écrire, et en démontent, pour mieux les exhiber, les rouages intimes.
Here is presented for the first time a methodology for the investigation of norms which operate in the field of audiovisual translation. Based on the findings of the polysystem approach to translation, the present work aims to demonstrate that it is possible to investigate audiovisual translation and the norms that operate in it in a systematic way.
Human agents, (audiovisual) products, recipients, and the mode itself are thoroughly investigated and stratified under a lower, middle and upper level. Specific techniques for collecting and analysing data are suggested.
The model is tentatively applied to the investigation of norms which seem to determine the choice between subtitling and revoicing children's TV programmes in Greece. However, one will soon notice that the same model could be applied for the investigation of audiovisual translation norms in any other country. But not only that: one will quickly realise that, with minute modifications, the same model can prove effective for the study of norms in other modes of written translation too. Therefore, this volume can be of a high interest not only to audiovisual translation scholars and practitioners, but to general translation scholars and students of translation proper as well.
The Goddess in Indo-Caribbean Ritual and Fiction
Translating Kali's Feast is an interdisciplinary study of the Goddess Kali bringing together ethnography and literature within the theoretical framework of translation studies. The idea for the book grew out of the experience and fieldwork of the authors, who lived with Indo-Caribbean devotees of the Hindu Goddess in Guyana. Using a variety of discursive forms including oral history and testimony, field notes, songs, stories, poems, literary essays, photographic illustrations, and personal and theoretical reflections, it explores the cultural, aesthetic and spiritual aspects of the Goddess in a diasporic and cross-cultural context. With reference to critical and cultural theorists including Walter Benjamin and Julia Kristeva, the possibilities offered by Kali (and other manifestations of the Goddess) as the site of translation are discussed in the works of such writers as Wilson Harris, V.S. Naipaul and R.K. Narayan. The book articulates perspectives on the experience of living through displacement and change while probing the processes of translation involved in literature and ethnography and postulating links between ‘rite' and ‘write,' Hindu ‘leela' and creole ‘play.'
Author: Roberta Pierce
Roberta B. Pierce has worked extensively with patients of all ages and all types of communication disorders for over thirty years. She has experience in an out-patient rehabilitation center, a rehabilitation hospital, an acute care hospital, and private practice. Since 1975, she has contracted to provide speech-language pathology services to home health agencies. She shares this expertise with clinicians just entering the home health field in the "Speech-Language Pathologist's Guide to Home Health Care". This book contains reference materials, patient and family counseling and education materials, and treatment activities that are invaluable for working with the adult neurogenic population in all healthcare settings. Content coverage includes: diagnostics; documentation; counseling the patient and family; treatment procedures; and therapy activities.
La adquisición/enseñanza de segundas lenguas y/o de lenguas extranjeras / Las lenguas de minoriás / La traducción