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This volume is a collection of studies of various religious groups in the changing religious markets of China: registered Christian congregations, unregistered house churches, Daoist masters, and folk-religious temples. The contributing authors are emerging Chinese scholars who apply and respond to Fenggang Yang’s tricolor market theory of religion in China: the red, black, and gray markets for legal, illegal, and ambiguous religious groups, respectively. These ethnographic studies demonstrate a great variety within the gray market, and fluidity across different markets. The volume concludes with Fenggang Yang reviewing the introduction of the religious market theories to China and formally responding to major criticisms of these theories.
The Narratives of Illusion and Suffering
Author: Simeng Wang
Volume Editor: Yunxiang Yan
Chinese Families Upside Down offers the first systematic account of how intergenerational dependence is redefining the Chinese family. The authors make a collective effort to go beyond the conventional model of filial piety to explore the rich, nuanced, and often unexpected new intergenerational dynamics. Supported by ethnographic findings from the latest field research, novel interpretations of neo-familism address critical issues from fresh perspectives, such as the ambivalence in grandparenting, the conflicts between individual and family interests, the remaking of the moral self in the face of family crises, and the decisive influence of the Chinese state on family change. The book is an essential read for scholars and students of China studies in particular and for those who are interested in the present-day family and kinship in general.
This selected translation of Blue Book of Chinese Education 2016 reviews China’s education development in 2015. Chapter one offers an overview. Chapters two to four examine rural education in China, including the education of the left-behind children, compulsory education in rural areas, and the working condition of rural teachers. Chapters five to eleven cover educational services, education reform, non-governmental education, training program for teachers, teaching of traditional Chinese culture, the basic values of high-school students, and school bullying. The last three chapters are survey reports of compulsory education development in Chinese cities, math and science education for ethnic minority populations, and education authorities’ attitudes toward reform. The seven appendices provide important supplementary materials.
The Portrayal of Women in Early Christian Armenian Texts
Author: David Zakarian
The Women, Too, Were Blessed by David Zakarian is the first extensive study of the representation of women in the fifth-century Armenian literature and historiography. It investigates the ways in which the ecclesiastical authorities envisioned the role of women in society after Christianisation and reveals some aspects of women’s lived experience in the patriarchal society of Armenia. The book offers a close scrutiny of all the passages that speak about women examining them within the context of pre-Christian (Zoroastrian) beliefs of the Armenians and the works of Greek and Syriac Church Fathers. The texts invariably evince the authors’ tendency to construct and promote role models of influential, pious Christian women who contributed to the preservation and promulgation of the new religion.
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Ritual Prognostication in the Tibetan Bon Tradition
In Divination in Exile, Alexander K. Smith offers the first comprehensive scholarly introduction to the performance of divination in Tibetan speaking communities, both past and present. While Smith surveys a variety of ritual practices, the volume focuses on divination and its associated rites in the contemporary Tibetan Bon tradition. Drawing from multi-site ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Himachal Pradesh and the translation of previously unpublished Tibetan language materials, Divination in Exile offers a valuable, social scientific contribution to our understanding of the perception and usage of ritual manuscripts in contemporary Tibetan cultural milieus.
Author: Fuk-tsang Ying


The relationship between religion and social movements is an important topic in the study of religion and society. This paper uses various textual and online sources to examine the role of Christianity in the anti-extradition bill movement that took place in Hong Kong from April to September 2019. The anti-extradition bill movement, which later evolved into a much wider movement against totalitarianism, has caused churches to grapple with church-state relations in the post-handover era. This paper employs the notion of “public religion” as an analytical framework to examine the process of the “deprivatization” of Christianity in Hong Kong. How does the ongoing contestation, both within and outside the church, reflect the challenges faced by Christianity when entering the public sphere? By answering the above questions, we will be able to explicate the religio-political significance of the protest movement in Hong Kong.

In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
Author: Ampere A. Tseng


This article addresses the problem of quantifying Han Buddhists who do not self-identify as Buddhists when responding to survey questions about religious belief and thus remain “hidden Buddhists.” Drawing on the results of various religious surveys and field observations, as well as taking into account the nonexclusive feature of Han Buddhists, the article develops a formula to quantify the hidden Han Buddhists. Data from one national survey and one regional survey are used to tune the parameters of the formula, while additional data from five religious surveys using different schemes are employed to establish the reliability and applicability of the formula. Compared to the five sets of survey data on hidden Han Buddhists, the results predicted by the formula range from less than 1% to 21% lower. This range of disagreement is considered adequate and reliable, given the uncertainty inherent in estimating religious phenomena in a spiritual world. Furthermore, the comparison also reveals that the number of hidden Buddhists may be much higher than that of self-identified Buddhists.

In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
In: Women, Too, Were Blessed