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Notions of Europe and the European among Participants in EU Cultural Initiatives
In this book, Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Katja Mäkinen, Viktorija L. A. Čeginskas, and Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus scrutinize how people who participate in cultural initiatives funded and governed by the European Union understand the idea of Europe. The book focuses on three cultural initiatives: the European Capital of Culture, the European Heritage Label, and a European Citizen Campus project funded through the Creative Europe programme. These initiatives are examined through field studies conducted in 12 countries between 2010 and 2018. The authors describe their approach as ‘ethnography of Europeanization’ and conceptualize the attempts at Europeanization in the European Union’s cultural policy as politics of belonging.
Author: Xuefeng He
Translator: Jingyuan Yuan
Based on an in-depth investigation of different regions of China's vast countryside, Improving Village Governance in Contemporary China vividly describes rural governance mechanisms against the background of China's rapid urbanization. China’s rural areas vary greatly from region to region with respect to the pace and mode of change. Rural governance in China is decided by how the state transfers resources to villages, and by the linkage between the transfer style and the specific situation of each village. Only when grassroots governance is based on rural democracy (with peasants as the core) can villages become more harmonious.
Views of the Cuban Communist Party on the Collapse of Soviet and Eastern European Socialism
In Cuba Was Different, Even Sandvik Underlid explores the views of Cuban authorities, official press, and Party members as they reflect back on the collapse of Soviet and Eastern European socialism. In so doing, he contributes to a better understanding as to why the Cuban system – often associated with Fidel Castro’s leadership – did not itself collapse. Despite the loss of its most important allies, key ideological referents, and even most of its foreign trade, Cuba did not embrace capitalism.

The author critically examines and analyzes the collapse of the USSR and Eastern Europe as reported in the Cuban Communist Party newspaper Granma, both as they unfolded and subsequently through the lens of additional interviews with individual Party members. This focus on Cuba’s Communist Party provides new perspectives on how these events were seen from Cuba and on the notable resilience of many party members.
Author: Yousra Abourabi
Depuis l’avènement du règne de Mohammed VI en 1999, le Maroc déploie une nouvelle politique étrangère continentale. Le Royaume ambitionne d’être reconnu comme une puissance africaine émergente dans son identité comme dans son espace de projection. Afin de satisfaire ces ambitions l’appareil diplomatique se développe et se modernise, tandis qu’une identité de rôle singulière émerge autour de la notion de « juste milieu ». Cette étude présente, sur le plan empirique, les conditions de l’élaboration et de la conduite de cette politique africaine, et analyse, sur le plan théorique, l’évolution de l’identité de rôle marocaine à l'échelle internationale.

Since the advent of the reign of Mohammed VI in 1999, Morocco has deployed a new continental foreign policy. The Kingdom aspires to be recognized as an emerging African power in its identity as well as in its space of projection. In order to meet these ambitions, the diplomatic apparatus is developing and modernizing, while a singular role identity is emerging around the notion of the "golden mean". This study presents, on an empirical level, the conditions of the elaboration and conduct of this African policy, and analyzes, on a theoretical level, the evolution of the Moroccan role identity at the international level.
Author: Paul Zarembka
Marx's oeuvre is vast but there are key elements of his ever evolving, class-based contribution to social theory. Declining usefulness for him of Hegelian philosophy and his deepening confrontation with Ricardian political economy were expressions. While the French edition of Capital is closest to Marx’s mature thought, Engels did not understand how work on Russia related to Marx’s evolution, and Engels distorted the outcome. Accumulation of capital is particularly difficult conceptually, including use of ‘primitive accumulation’, and is carefully addressed, as is composition of capital. After Marx, Luxemburg is the most significant contributor to Marxism and her works on political economy and on nationalism are highlighted here. The modern topic of state conspiracies, too often avoided, concludes the book. Troubling issues, however, remain.
Revolutions and Labour Relations in Global Historical Perspective
This volume offers a bold restatement of the importance of social history for understanding modern revolutions. The essays collected in Worlds of Labour Turned Upside Down provide global case studies examining:
- changes in labour relations as a causal factor in revolutions;
- challenges to existing labour relations as a motivating factor during revolutions;
- the long-term impact of revolutions on the evolution of labour relations.
The volume examines a wide range of revolutions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, covering examples from South-America, Africa, Asia, and Western and Eastern Europe. The volume goes beyond merely examining the place of industrial workers, paying attention to the position of slaves, women working on the front line of civil war, colonial forced labourers, and white collar workers.

Contributors are: Knud Andresen, Zsombor Bódy, Pepijn Brandon, Dimitrii Churakov, Gabriel Di Meglio, Kimmo Elo, Adrian Grama, Renate Hürtgen, Peyman Jafari, Marcel van der Linden, Tiina Lintunen, João Carlos Louçã, Stefan Müller, Raquel Varela, and Felix Wemheuer.
Theo-political Reflections on Contemporary Politics in Ecumenical Conversation
Volume Editors: Alexei Bodrov and Stephen M. Garrett
Theology and the Political: Theo-political Reflections on Contemporary Politics in Ecumenical Conversation, edited by Alexei Bodrov and Stephen M. Garrett, is the fruit of Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant conversations from East and West concerning the retrieval of theological discourse for political praxis, theo-political structural analysis of secularity/post-secularity, and distinct political engagement from varying Christian traditions that not only offer political critique but criticism of its particular tradition.

This edited volume is animated by the motif of political action as witness in a missional key and makes a unique interdisciplinary contribution to the field of political theology that invites further reflection on the gospel instantiated in various cultural contexts in light of the boundary-crossing nature of mission and theological discourse.

Abstract:

The Carnation Revolution in 1974 in Portugal marked the end of the last European colonial empire. This was an anachronistic empire of a small peripheral country that since 1961 had been waging a relentless war in Africa to stifle the national liberation movements that contested for control of colonial territory and organized growing sectors of the population, namely the forced labourers who guaranteed a significant accumulation of capital for the beneficiaries of the colonial regime. In this chapter we seek to describe the moment and the conditions in which Portugal freed itself from a long dictatorship of 48 years and the decisive influence of the struggles in the colonies on the military revolt that started the revolution in the metropolis and ended the war to stem the movement towards independence in the former colonial territories. Workers in Portugal and its colonies in Africa alike embarked on a process that created the conditions for the Carnation Revolution and the formation of new independent African states in 1974 and 1975. Together, they succeeded in defeating the longest-running colonial dictatorship of the twentieth century.

In: Worlds of Labour Turned Upside Down
Author: Adrian Grama

Abstract:

How might the experiences of East European workers between 1945 and 1989 fit into a general history of the left in the twentieth century? Should this be a history of deskilling and Taylorism run amok on Europe’s eastern fringes as some Eastern European dissent writers famously argued? Or should it rather be a history of varieties of Fordism accommodating to national contexts and resulting in specific “productivity bargains” east of the Elbe? Starting from Bruno Trentin’s La Città del lavoro, this chapter argues that neither of these narratives stand up to empirical scrutiny. Instead, the chapter rescues the notion of “workers’ control” and shows it to be main conceptual framework that adequately explains the trajectory of the working-class in state socialist Eastern Europe in the second half of the twentieth century. It does so by exploring comparatively the panoply of wage reforms Eastern European communist governments undertook beginning with the 1960s, and the various solutions policy-makers arrived at to tackle the immanent tension between high and low wage dispersion that characterized socialist shortage economies. The main take-away of this case-study is straightforward: the key legacy of Eastern European state socialism in the sphere of labour relations was workers’ entrenched control of the production process, and it was this legacy that came to be seen as a major bulwark to enterprise restructuring following the revolutions of 1989.

In: Worlds of Labour Turned Upside Down
Author: Zsombor Bódy

Abstract:

The conduct and activities of workers and labourers in factories in Hungary 1956 were of crucial importance in the unfolding of the revolution and the continued resistance against the Soviet forces, even after the armed forces fighting against the Soviets had been defeated. To a significant extent the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 constituted an outburst of tensions that were not tied directly to the spectacular events of national politics at the time, and even less to political ideologies or conscious political stances. The decisions and actions of workers were shaped by tensions at the factories that had become increasingly palpable in the years before the revolution. These tensions had built up in everyday life, particularly in the workplace and in relations between workers and employers under the circumstances of a specific technological and work culture. In order to further a more nuanced understanding of the causes and the consequences of the revolution, the chapter analyses the revolutionary events at the factory level not from the perspective of political theory or politics at national level, but from the workplace tensions that arose between the workers, engineers, the representatives of state power.

In: Worlds of Labour Turned Upside Down