The Tattvārthādhigamabhāṣya, which is an early commentary on the Tattvārthādhigama attributed to Umāsvāti, contains several passages in verse. The inclusion of these verses has not been studied before, even though they are relevant for the discussion of the relationship between the Tattvārthādhigama and the bhāṣya. This article provides an analysis and translation of these verses, including the introductory verses and the colophon that usually accompany this text. Although some scholars regard the bhāṣya as an auto-commentary, the outcomes of this analysis indicate that the bhāṣya was written by a different author. Further, this study shows that some of the verses in the bhāṣya are derived from other Jaina works in Sanskrit that are no longer extant. This suggests that the Tattvārthādhigama was not the only Jaina philosophical text in Sanskrit at the time of the final redaction of the bhāṣya.
Indian Buddhist literary sources contain both systematic and casual rejections of, broadly speaking, the caste system and caste discrimination. However, they also provide ample evidence for, possibly subconscious, discriminatory attitudes toward outcastes, prototypically caṇḍālas. The rhetoric found in Indian Buddhist literature regarding caṇḍālas is examined in this paper.
The article presents a new edition, translation, and interpretation of the inscription, which was previously published by H. Falk in 2014, of the otherwise unknown Buddhist patron Helagupta (helaüta). The inscription, datable to the latter half of the first century CE, is recorded on five copper plates and is the second longest one known in Kharoṣṭhī script/Gāndhārī language. This edition proposes several new readings and interpretations as well as discussing its cultural implications for issues such as the performance of ancestral rituals by Buddhists, and Buddhological ramifications such as the concept of “brahma merit” (Gāndhārī bramo puṇyo) and the contemporary understanding of variant forms of titles of the Buddha.