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Volume IV: Prosecutor v. Sesay, Kallon and Gbao (The RUF Case) (Set of 3)
The Special Court for Sierra Leone was established through signature of a bilateral treaty between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone in early 2002, making it the third modern ad hoc international criminal tribunal. It has tried various persons, including former Liberian President Charles Ghankay Taylor, for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed during the latter half of the Sierra Leonean armed conflict. It completed its work in December 2013. A new Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone, based in Freetown and with offices in The Hague, has been created to carry out its essential “residual” functions.
This volume, which consists of three books and a CD-ROM and is edited by two legal experts on the Sierra Leone Court, completes the set of edited Law Reports started in 2012. Together, the Law Reports fill the gap of a single and authoritative reference source of the tribunal’s jurisprudence. The law reports are intended for national and international judges, lawyers, academics, students and other researchers as well as transitional justice practitioners in courts, tribunals and truth commissions, and anyone seeking an accurate record of the trials conducted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

N.B.: The hardback copy of this title contains a CD-ROM with the decisions that are reproduced in the book and the trial transcripts.
The e-book version does not.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present new archaeological data coming from the recent excavations in Adulis (Eritrea) in the so-called “Church of the British Museum”, discovered in 1868 by Captain Goodfellow. New excavations that began in 2018 have led to highlight the biggest church known so far in Adulis, probably the ecclesia episcopalis. It stands as a 30 meters long building, which follows the typical Aksumite architectural layout. Also, the great quantity of decorated marbles coming from the church are of great interest, revealing important contacts with Yemen and Byzantium, mostly in the 6th century AD. The new archaeological data will be contextualized in the wider scenario of the rise and establishment of early Christianity in the Aksumite kingdom, until the arrival of Islam.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

Abstract

The dearth of securely dated assemblages in the Horn of Africa limits a comprehensive understanding of human adaptation across the Early Holocene. This paper presents results from initial analyses of lithic material from Dibé rockshelter in the Arsi lowlands, Ethiopia. Radiocarbon dates confirm occupation of Dibé rockshelter by hunter-gatherers directly following improved climatic conditions marking the onset of the Holocene. Microliths dominate both the surface and excavated sub-assemblages. Micro-burins and Levallois items are present, although more frequent as surface finds. Regionally available siliceous rocks were extensively exploited, with greater variety in the older occupation layers signifying differential access to raw material sources and/or wider foraging ranges. Largely similar reduction patterns and toolkits across the sampled sequence imply continuity in lithic tradition. This, coupled with the total absence of finds commonly associated with early food production, suggests that Dibé was abandoned during one of the abrupt arid episodes of the Early/Mid-Holocene.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

Abstract

This research note presents evidence for the oldest Middle Pleistocene Eastern Saharan human activity from the area referred to as the Eastern Desert Atbara River (EDAR), Sudan, which is currently threatened by gold mining. Preliminary results of multifaceted analyses indicate the activity of Homo sapiens during MIS 5 as well as Homo erectus during MIS 7–11 or earlier.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

Abstract

The Ethiopian Federal Democratic Republic (EFDR) Constitution is promulgated in 1994. Under Article (45) of the EFDR the country is restructured from presidential to parliamentary system of government. Since then, the country has been ravaged by the gross violation of the liberty of citizens and the crisis of national unity and consensus among the diversified ethnic groups. The impact of the parliamentary system in aggravating those critical challenges and the comparative advantage of presidantialism is the most ignored political research topic. In this Article, I investigated that the blurry separation of powers of the parliamentary structure of the country has created fusion of powers which has undermined the system of checks and balances. Thus, the executive organ of the government has enabled to concentrate unchecked and unaccountable power which has manifested in the gross violation of the liberty of citizens. Likewise, Article (73) of EFDR has declared that the prime minister and council of ministers of the country to be appointed by the legislators. This has deprived their boarder popular base and authenticity; and equivocally undermined their potency and decisiveness in addressing the existing crisis of national unity and consensus. Comparatively, the presidential structure of government is defined by the firm separation of powers and genuine system of checks and balances. The direct popular election of the president enables the president and council of ministers to secure broader popular base and authenticity. Thus, it is advantageous over parliamentarian structure in terms of protecting the liberty of citizens and addressing the crisis of national unity and consensus in Ethiopia.

In: The African Review

Abstract

The paper examines the determinants of vulnerability to expected poverty in Tanzania. Following Landau et al. (2012), Chaudhuri (2000) and Chaudhuri et al. (2003) on estimating Vulnerability to Expected Poverty (VEP), the paper uses a three waves of Tanzania National Panel Survey Data for Tanzania collected between 2008/2009, 2010/2011 and 2012/2013 to find that being employed in agriculture, residing in rural area and household size turns out to be significantly more likely to be poor in the future, at a given consumption level and in all cross-section combination. It also appeared that most of the variables were statistically insignificant at influencing the conditional variance of future consumption across household characteristics. Lastly, nearly 39.42% and 59.49% of households who were poor in 2008 turned out to be less vulnerable in 2010 and 2012 respectively and the rest turned out to be high vulnerable. Thus, consumption stabilization strategies are likely to be influential if they target families whose household head is aging.

In: The African Review

Abstract

Women’s engagement in rural land sales has been a significant aspect of land tenure dynamics with varied implications to their livelihoods and wellbeing. However, the factors that influence women’s decisions and the modalities of such engagement have not received much attention in social analysis, specifically with regard to women’s perceptions, responses and actions towards land sales, especially in situations of land shortage. In the context where multiple and interacting factors are continuing to transform rural land tenure patterns, this article discusses the varied implications of recent land sales to women, with possible extension of their vulnerabilities, yet also re-invigorating women’s agency regarding land ownership rights. Using a feminist political-ecological perspective, this article shows how women act under constraining circumstances to transform gender relations and patterns of land ownership with varying outcomes to their wellbeing. The findings also suggest deeper interrogation on the capacities of grassroots structures obligated to oversee land tenure security for communities and upholding women’s rights of access to land.

In: The African Review
Authors: Yan Li and Mingque Ye

Abstract

The gravity model is applied to construct a collaborative innovation network between cities in the Yangtze River Delta, analyzes its structural characteristics and evolution from a network perspective, and proposes development strategies. This will help optimize the network structure of collaborative innovation among cities in the Yangtze River Delta, improve the efficiency of collaborative innovation, and promote their innovation level together. Based on the data of urban innovation indexes in 2006, 2011 and 2016, this paper reveals the structural characteristics and evolution of the collaborative innovation network between cities in the Yangtze River Delta, and puts forward corresponding development strategies. The findings are as follows: (1) The overall innovation capability of cities in the Yangtze River Delta has been continuously improved, and the strength of collaborative innovation links between cities has slowly increased. (2) The innovation development of cities in the Yangtze River Delta is unbalanced and asymmetrical. The network presents a significant “core-periphery” spatial structure and a “multi-center, multi-level” pattern, and central cities drive the development of surrounding cities. (3) A reasonable regional innovation community should be constructed from the perspectives of spatial coordination, innovation industry chain integration and resource sharing, and the collaborative innovation network should be optimized.

In: African and Asian Studies

Abstract

The accession by Tanzania to the Marrakesh Treaty has set up a new legal platform and benchmark which calls for national policy and regulatory review, particularly to the legislation governing copyright and rights of persons with disabilities. From its inception, copyright law hinges on a cautiously tailored regulatory approach calculated to accommodate competing interests of the copyright owners and users. The legislative thrust centers on devising a balanced approach cognizant of the need to promote artistic and literary creativity while at the same time making copyright law serve broader public interests. The Marrakesh Treaty was negotiated and subsequently adopted along the lines of public interest considerations. It seeks to create a defined legal framework that would facilitate access to the published materials and other information in accessible format for persons who are print disabled. Tanzania accessed the Treaty in the year 2020. Thus, this paper explores the policy and legislative implications to Tanzania pursuant to her accession to the Treaty. It concludes by highlighting that, a holistic policy and legislative review is necessary in order for Tanzania to fully adhere to its obligations under the Treaty.

In: The African Review

Abstract

This article is an empirical study of the causal factors of electoral violence in gubernatorial elections in Oyo state from 2007 to 2015 and its implications on the state’s democratisation process. The methodology is qualitative, drawing data from primary and secondary sources. Data were analysed using content analysis. The article adopted political clientelism and patronage as the theoretical framework. Findings revealed that the nature of politics based on clientelism and patronage and the politicisation of leadership tussle of the National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) were among the factors responsible for violence in the state during the period of the study. It is recommended that the establishment of a Joint Security Consultative Council can help in securing future elections.

In: The African Review